2022 Plant Talk 15: Plants, Fermentation and Fungi



November 13, 2022

Plant Talk 15 Plants, Fermentation and Fungi

What’s Blooming

The Asteraceae is one of the few families still blooming in profusion. Some examples blooming in Western North Carolina currently are included below. Killing frost has come and gone though it has been relatively warm subsequently. This is now all ending on the tail end of Hurricane Nicole.

A few Asteraceae are still strong and persistent enough to be blooming currently.
Some of these include Asters (Symphyotrichum spp.) Daisies/Mums (Chrysanthemum/Leucanthemum spp.) and Golden Asters (Chrysopsis, Heterotheca, Pityopsis).

Some woody plants that bloom this time of year include Camellia spp. and Witchazel (Hamamelis virginiana).

Food Ready for Harvest

Veggies

Most of all the Winter Squashes and tender Root crops such as Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) are freshly harvested and brought in for the winter. Though some friends are starting to overwinter Turmeric well mulched outside in our traditional Zone 6b! This will be the same for Dahlia’s soon which most people think of as tender ornamentals. However, some have potential food/medicine value as well for instance with D. coccinea among other species (Lim, 2014; Whitley, 1985). A lot of research has been done on the use of Dahlia flowers in commercial food preparations due to various compounds as well (Espejel et al., 2019; Mulík & Ozuna, 2020; Pires et al., 2018).

This is a great time for greens both wild and cultivated. On the cultivated side the options are mostly dominated by the Brassicaceae. Broccoli, Brussel Sprouts, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Collards, Kale and Kohlrabi are all members of the same species but different varieties of Brassica oleracea. Then there are the Asian members of the Brassica rapa group such as Asian Cabbage, Bok Choi, Pak Choi and Tat Soi among others.  

Wild greens also include members of the Brassicaceae such as Barbarea sp and Cardamine spp. as well as items like Chickweed (Stellaria media),

Fruits
Many wild and cultivated fruits are available for harvest. Some of these include Apples (Malus spp.), Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata), Hawthorns (Crataegus spp.), Pears (Pyrus spp.), Persimmon (Diospyros spp.), Viburnum spp., Rose (Rosa spp.), Rowans (Sorbus spp.) Acorns from Oaks (Quercus spp.) are also available along with nuts from Hickories (Carya spp.) and Walnuts (Juglans spp.).

The Fungal Plant Connection

The plant and fungal kingdoms are intrinsically linked in so many ways. No better example being the phenomenon of Lichens that combine in one organism elements of both on a fundamental level (Brodo et al., 2001; Purvis, 2000; Richardson, 1975; Stephenson, 2010). This website focuses mostly on plants specifically, being such a marvelously diverse and never endingly deep area of study unto itself. That said a class highlighting some of the essential interconnections of the botanical and mycological realms especially in relation to current and future resilience and sustainability is clearly in order. A definitive and free resource is available from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in London, England. The title is The State of the World’s Plants and Fungi 2020.

Ecologically speaking certain Mushrooms tend to cohabitate with certain plants. A classic division being mushrooms of Oak forests versus the fungi growing in Coniferous forests. A great guide by Denise Binion (2008) for the Macrofungi associated with Oaks of Eastern Forests illustrates this trend nicely.

Similar looking and closely related mushrooms tend to grow in similar conditions throughout the temperate world. Lately a lot of splitting from old world taxonomy has taken place. Certain websites may help with the teasing apart of current taxonomy if that is necessary and of interest. Some of my favorites include INaturalist, Mushroom Observer, and Mycoweb. Some more can be seen at the following link. Which ones are you aware of?

Mushroom Taxonomy

Mushrooms are thought to be more diverse than plants though fewer species have actually been described. Over 144,000 species are known to science of an estimated 2.2 to 3.8 million and 886 families. Focusing on families clearly can simplify things though many new families are getting formalized all the time unlike with the plant kingdom.

Uses can sometimes follow family trends. The Polyporaceae sensu lato in particular features many edibles and medicinals and not much that is poisonous. However many groups like the Agaricaceae, Boletaceae sensu lato and Russulaceae feature many edible and poisonous members often sharing the same genus.

A number of books look at the big picture that comprises the fungal kingdom (Alexopoulos et al., 1996; Cannon & Kirk, 2007; Dugan, 2006; Kendrick, 2017; D. Moore et al., 2020; Petersen, 2013; Roberts & Evans, 2011; Stephenson, 2010; Watkinson et al., 2016).  Here is a short article by the Guardian entitled the Future is Fungal in regards to the growing importance of Mycology. Here is a short video by the BBC about the Fascinating World of Fungi as well.

Mushroom Field Guides

Guides to terminology may help in interpretation of more technical resources (Hallock, 2019; Hanlin, 2012).

Many regional field guides that i have traditionally relied on for the southeastern USA and Appalachia in particular are fairly outdated regarding taxonomy (Arora, 1986; Lincoff, 1981; McKnight et al., 1998; R. Phillips, 2010; Roody, 2003). However, we are lucky in Appalachia to have a plethora of updated Mushroom guides for the region (A. Bessette et al., 2018; Elliott & Stephenson, 2018; Sturgeon, 2018; Woehrel & Light, 2017).

Alan and Arleen Bessette are legends in regards to the publishing of field guides in particular focusing on specific families or bioregions, as well as teaching classes in the field at places such as the Highlands Biological Station (A. Bessette, 1988; A. Bessette et al., 2001, 2018; A. E. Bessette et al., 1996, 2007, 2019). They have written a number of specialized guides to rather obscure groups like the Wax Caps (A. Bessette, 2012) and Tricholomas (Trudell;, 2013). The most recent addition to the roughly 30 book catalog of this power couple is a long needed updated treatise on the Polypores and their associates (A. E. Bessette et al., 2021).

Mushrooms of the western United States have their own literature of course (J. Ammirati & Trudell, 2009; Arora, 1991; R. M. Davis et al., 2012; Underhill, 1982; Winkler, 2011). Commercial level harvests happen out there for choice wild taxa like Chanterelles and Morels. Langdon Cook (2013) wrote a fascinating book about the exploits of mushroom harvesters in various places of the country including out west.

California as in many things has its own specialized study (Desjardin et al., 2015; Siegel & Schwarz, 2016; Winkler, 2012). i have come across a few resources for mushrooms of the Midwest as well (Kuo & Methven, 2014; Marrone, 2004; Marrone & Yerich, 2020).

The study of fungi in Costa Rica is rather well developed (Calderón Fallas, 2005; Chaverri et al., 2011; Halling & Mueller, 2004; Mata Hidalgo et al., 2003; Mata et al., 2010; Mata & Navarro, 2010; Mitchell, 2011; Osmundson et al., 2007; Stevens, 2019; Tulloss et al., 1997). Some interesting overlapping groups for there and northern latitudes include Boletes (Boletus spp.) Ear Mushrooms (Auricularia spp.) and Reishis (Ganoderma spp.)

i have seen some notable Ganoderma looking mushrooms growing on palms by the beach in particular. i have also come across some other resources for mushrooms in other tropical places. One for Florida  (Kimbrough, 2000) another for the Caribbean in general (Minter et al., 2001), one for Hawaii (Desjardin, 2002) and another for Trinidad and Tobago (Baker & Dale, 1951). i have come across a couple English resources for cultivation of mushrooms in the tropics as well (Chang, 1982; Quimio, 2002). Here is an online PDF of the subject as well.

Certain groups like the Boletes have their own specialized literature (A. Bessette, 2010; A. Bessette et al., 2017; Both, 1993; Coker & Beers, 1974; Dentinger et al., 2010; Halling & Mueller, 1999; Smith & Thiers, 1970; Wu et al., 2016). Porcini (Boletus edulis) are one of the most famous wild mushrooms of the world and they belong to this family. Other genera that have at least some species that are sometimes consumed for food by people include Austroboletus, Leccinum, Strobilomyces, Suillus and Xanthoconium.

Russula spp. and other genera of the Russulaceae such as Lactarius and associates are some other examples of a well described and often consumed but sometimes poisonous fungal group that grow around the temperate world (Beardslee, 1918; A. Bessette, 2009; Delgat et al., 2019; Earle, 1902; Hesler & Smith, 1979; Kim et al., 2010, 2010; Lin et al., 2015, 2015; Matsuura et al., 2016).

The best field guide is a person and i have been fortunate to have quite a few great instructors about the fungal realm including Alan Muskat, Abby Artemisia, Becky Beyer, Christopher Hobbs, Daniel Nicholson, Doug Elliott, Ken Crouse, Mateo Ryall, Mike Hopping, Mycol Stevens, Paul Stamets, Robert Rogers, Todd Elliott, Tradd Cotter, and William Padilla Brown.

Alan in particular has been the subject of a lot of local and National Press like the NY Times in an article about Mushroom hunting and mushrooms that glow in the dark.

Lichens

Lichen field guides have been developed for various areas as well

California (Sharnoff & Raven, 2014)

New Zealand (Malcolm & Malcolm, 1996)

Costa Rica (Lücking et al., 2008; Umaña & Sipman, 2002)

NE USA (Pope, 2005)

Colorado (Tripp, 2017)

Pacific Northwest (McCune, 2009; Vitt et al., 2007)

Eastern USA (Hale, 1961)

Rocky Mountains (McClure, 1992)

Midwest USA (Walewski, 2007)

Smoky Mountains (Lendemer et al., 2013; Tripp & Lendemer, 2020)

Mt. Mitchell (Lendemer et al., 2017)

Sonoran Desert (Nash, 2002, 2004; Nash et al., 2007)

Namib (Wirth, 2010)

Urban (Allen, 2021)

A couple books take on all the lichens of North America (Brodo et al., 2001, 2016). Here is a guide developed especially for young people as well (McMullin, 2022).

Many lichens are famous as natural dyes (Bolton, 1972; Casselman, 2001, 2011; Gordon, 1980; Lindsay, 1855; McClure, 1992; McGrath, 1977). Though growth rates can be VERY slow and conservation is an important concern (Allen, 2017; Allen et al., 2019; Casselman, 1994; Giordani et al., 2020; Miller et al., 2020). Only using species that are windblown from storms or otherwise elementally disturbed is one ethical practice to implement.

Ethnomycology

The prevalent idea around the science of Ethnomycology is often focused on Entheogens also known as psychedelics. The academic study of these types of practices in indigenous cultures in various parts of the world goes back decades (Estrada et al., 1981; Mandrake & Haze, 2016; Menser, 1996; Metzner, 2005; Ratsch & Hofmann, 2005; Stamets, 1996; Wasson, 1972).

The use of psychedelic mushrooms is often thought of as a marginal if not outright illicit activity in mainstream industrialized society and sometimes that pigeonholes negatively the whole science around mushrooms. However, the Journalist Michael Pollan (2019) has really popularized this with his book How to Change your Mind. His work among that of others is part of the feature film Fantastic Fungi and the book that is based on it as well (Schwartzberg et al., 2019). A whole literature is devoted to various aspects of the Mushroom world in regards to psychedelics  (Labate & Cavnar, 2018; Menser, 1996; Metzner, 2005; Sheldrake, 2020). The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, (MAPS) is probably one of the better known organizations focused in this area. Here is an interesting BBC article on psychedelic mushrooms. Here is a Guardian article on the subject as well.

However, Ethnomycology comprises all the various ways different ethnic groups may interact with different members of the mycological kingdom. Certain studies have been conducted along these lines for specific groups from various parts of Africa to Bulgaria to China and also worldwide (Akpaja et al., 2003; Degreef et al., 2016; Dugan, 2011; Fernandes et al., 2021; Kang et al., 2012; Njouonkou et al., 2016; Osarenkhoe et al., 2014; Papp et al., 2017; Seid, 2014; Uzunov & Stoyneva-Gärtner, 2015).

Poisonous Mushrooms

Most mushrooms that people like to consume for food also have common poisonous look alikes. Some examples are included below. Polypores are much less likely to get confused with other mushrooms.

Choice Edible

Potentially Poisonous

Boletaceae

Boletaceae

Chanterelle (Cantharellus spp.)

Jack O Lantern (Omphalotus illudens)

Honey (Armillaria spp.)

Autumn Skullcap (Galerina sp.)

Milk Mushrooms (Lactarius spp.)

Milk Mushrooms (Lactarius spp.)

Morel (Morchella spp.)

Brain Mushroom (Gyromitra spp.)

Button/Field Mushrooms (Agaricus spp.)

Death Angels (Amanita spp.) Green Spored Parasol (Chlorophyllum molybdites) Poisonous Agaricus spp.

Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus spp.)

 

Puffball (Lycoperdon spp.)

Earthball (Scleroderma spp.) Amanita spp.

 

As one might imagine the literature on poisonous mushrooms is rather profuse (J. F. Ammirati James A. Traquair, and Paul A. Horgen, 1985; Benjamin, 1995; Besl, 1989; Fergus & Fergus, 2003; Kilkan, 2016; Levy, 1984; Menser, 1996; Murrill, 1910; Ratcliff, 2016; Turner & Aderkas, 2009; Turner & Szczawinski, 1995).

The Amanita spp. are some of the most deadly poisonous mushrooms in the world and sometime confused with look a likes. The Galerina has similar chemistry. It has now been shown that sometimes the life of people suffering from this type of poisoning may be saved in part by the administration of Silymarin an extract from Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) (Abenavoli et al., 2018; Ward et al., 2013).

Not many mushrooms will kill someone outright upon ingestion like the ones mentioned above. However, the not so funny Mycological joke is that few mushrooms will kill you but there are quite a number more that may make you wish you were dead! Mixing mushrooms like Inky Caps (Coprinus spp.) and Morels (Morchella spp.) with alcohol can be a cause of sickness as well.

Mushrooms also may possibly accumulate toxic substances like heavy metals as a prodigious amount of literature reflects (Árvay et al., 2014; Barcan et al., 1998; Chen et al., 2009; Cocchi et al., 2006; Kokkoris et al., 2019; Liu et al., 2015; Radulescu et al., 2010; Zhu et al., 2011).

Mushrooms can cause various diseases on plants. The edible Honey Mushrooms (Armillaria spp.) that is the biggest known organism in the world is a predator of the forests in which they live.

Choice Edibles

Mushroom harvesting is rather seasonal where i live. The season starts with the Morels who deservedly have their whole own literature (Kuo, 2005; Lonik, 2012; Maybrier & Maybrier, 2011; Pelouch, 2008; M. E. Phillips, 2012). Deer mushroom (Pluteus cervinus), Pheasant’s Back (Cerioporus squamosus) and Platterful (Megacollybia platyphylla) are some other mushrooms that may be found in the spring.

After the Morels the Mushrooms of summer start to come on such as the Chanterelles (Cantharellus spp.), Chicken of the Woods (Laetiporus spp.), Milk Mushrooms (Lactarius spp.) and Russula spp.

The late fall and winter still feature some diversity of mushrooms including Blewit (Lepista nuda), Honey (Armillaria spp.) Oyster (Pleurotus spp.) and Puffball (Lycoperdon spp.) mushrooms.

Mushroom cultivation often focuses on choice edibles like Oysters, Portobello and Shiitakes. In Asia Wood Ear (Auricularia spp.) and Enoki (Flammulina populicola) are cultivated in large quantities as well. A number of good resources take on the subject of farming mushrooms specifically (Bray, 2019; Ciju, 2012; Cotter, 2014; Lynch, 2018; Randall, 2012; Russell, 2014; Sewak & Sewak, 2016; Stamets, 1984, 2000). A few companies for supplies and further info include Mushroom People and Field & Forest.

Mushroom Jerky is one of my favorite ways to make use of a large amount of Hen of the Woods or Berkeley’s Polypore. My brother, colleague, friend, and mentor Eric Lewis is really good at this process in particular. A bunch of videos describe the process on You Tube as well.

Some truffles are a highly sought after gourmet food item of  the fungal realm (Bailleu, 2016; G. Brown et al., 2008; Czarnecki, 2019; Jacobs, 2019; Maser et al., 2008; Price, 2009; Renowden, 2005; J. M. Trappe et al., 2009; M. Trappe et al., 2007; P. Wells, 2011). Around Asheville, NC we have had a Truffle Festival in recent years. Dr. Jeanine Davis has been conducting research along with other in the cultivation of Truffles as well (Meadows et al., 2020).

Mushrooms for Medicine

The Polyporaceae is the biggest focus for medicinals in regards to diversity. The genera Ganoderma, Trametes are some of the most studied and cited. Other famous medicinals include Cordyceps spp., Lion’s Mane, Shiitake, Wood Ear (Auricularia spp.). The literature in book form regarding medicinal mushrooms has greatly proliferated in the last couple of decades (Babel, 2011; Bray, 2020; Halpern, 2007; Hobbs, 2021; Hobbs & Beinfield, 2003; Ley, 2001; Marley, 2009; Powell, 2013; Press, 2020; R. D. Rogers, 2020; R. Rogers & Wasser, 2011; Stamets & Yao, 1999; Stengler, 2005; Sullivan, n.d.; Sullivan et al., 2006). There is also the academic periodical publication dedicated to the subject the International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms.

Financial health of a community is something else i consider under the medicinal category. Some of my favorite sources for mushroom medicine include on the national level: GAIA herbs, Fungi Perfecti, and Herb Pharm. Locally to the Asheville, North Carolina area include Ferafarm Apothecary, Mirth Tree Herbals, Mushroom Metta, Mushroom Mountain, Pine’s Herbals, Pisgah Gourmet, Red Moon Herbs and the Well Seasoned Table to name a few good sources. Here is a nice short article courtesy of Mountain Rose herbs about some of the prominent medicinal mushrooms.

Fungi for Crafts

The Bessettes oft cited above are also part of the specialized literature focusing on natural dyes from the fungal realm (A. R. Bessette & Bessette, 2001; Bolton, 1972; Casselman, 1994, 2001, 2011; Gordon, 1980; Lindsay, 1855; McClure, 1992; McGrath, 1977; M. Rice, 2007; M. C. Rice & Beebee, 1980). The use of Lichen dyes specifically has a rather well developed literature in particular as cited above too.

Mushrooms also have a history of use in paper making especially members of the Polyporaceae i.e. Daedalea quercina, Fomitopsis pinicola, Laetiporus sulphureus, Lenzites betulina, Phaeolus schweinitzii, Piptoporus betulinus, Stereum hirsutum, Trametes versicolor. A tradition from Eastern Europe with felting for crafts with Piptoporus betulinus and Fomes fometarius has been documented (Papp et al., 2017). Here’s a short You Tube video on the subject.

Dried mushrooms from the Polyporaceae family and others can also be used for nature altars and ornament. Several members of the Polyporaceae have also been used as tinder conchs to carry the embers of a fire from place to place (Hume, 2018).

Mycoremediation

            Much attention has been given to the concept of using Mushrooms to clean up the environment known as Mycoremediation. Cleaning up petrochemicals like oil spills has been a particular focus. Paul Stamets (2005) wrote a fundamental text in this regard known as Mycelium Running. Since then a number other texts in both the academic and popular press have taken this concept further (Cotter, 2014; Darwish, 2013; McCoy, 2016; Prasad, 2018; Schindler, 2014; Singh, 2006; Umolo et al., 2017).

The science of Mycology of the soil is closely tied to Mycoremediation. The case of agriculture makes it ever more clear that plants often need much more than NPK and a short list of other nutrients (Lowenfels, 2013; M. Phillips, 2017). A common term used now to describe the interconnectedness is the Wood Wide Web. Peter Wohlleben (2016), a forester in Europe and Suzanne Simard in Canada are two great proponents of this knowledge. Elaine Ingham is another western scientist looking at the overall soil food web that mycological elements play a part in (Ingham, 2005; Ingham et al., 2000). Michael Phillips (2017) is an orchardist who has written about the fungal plant connection in relation to fruit trees. Here is an article by the Guardian about an attempt to map the fungal networks underground.

Fermentation Overview  

Much fermentation is the product of fungal processes from organisms like Molds and Yeasts. However, some is also Bacterial. Fermentation is a fundamental process in the legacies of all cultures around the world that i am familiar with! It would well behoove one to learn some of the basic processes described in the pages below regarding future general sustainability but specifically the core functions of food preservation and tasty food palatability.

Products

Lots of products are the beneficiaries of the fermentation process. Below are a few main ones from various world cultures.

Vegetable ferments:

Pickles are a collective term for a variety of items from various cultures

Sauerkraut (European), tempeh (Indonesian), poi (Polynesian), kimchi (Korean), gundru (Himalayan), gv no he nv (Cherokee), tamari, soy sauce, natto, miso, mochi (Asian)

Breads/Porridges:

Sourdough wheat breads and porridges are common to a number of cultures.

Njera from Ethiopia and dosas/idlis from India are a couple notable examples

Beverage/Liquid/Stimulant ferments:

Coffee (Ethiopia), tea (Asia), chocolate (Latin America), vinegar, rejuvelac, kombucha (Asia), jun (Asia), kvass (Eastern Europe)

Alcohol ferments:

Mead, cider, beer, liquor, wine are prolific throughout the world

Amasake (Japan) and tepache, tiswin and chichi from Latin America are a few varieties.

Dairy ferments:

Buttermilk, cheese, kefir, skir, yogurt,

Meat ferments:

Procuitto, salami, bacon, ham, fish, miriss (fat), and doddery (bone). The folks of Sudan and the Artic are masters at this form of fermentation (Dirar, 1993; Hesseltine, 1986; Katz, 2012; Steinkraus, 2004).

History

Fermentation has been used for thousands of years all over the world by every indigenous group. It was one of the first methods used to preserve food. It empowered the age of exploration on long voyages to prevent scurvy. Fermentation has also held spiritual significance for a number of cultures i.e. Christian, Jewish, Lituanian (Roguszys) (Katz & Morell, 2016). Certain food products are almost synonymous with the human cultures they have evolved with.  First global ferments were all bitter stimulants. Later these were watered down with milk and sugar. Some contend that these stimulants provided essential fuel for the industrial revolution. Fermented products are often used sparingly as condiments, which is probably a good practice to follow. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) is a concept explored in anthropology that tries to incorporate holistically the nuances of cultural regimes.

i would encourage everyone to try as much as possible to track down your particular lineage of fermentation processes whether it be Himalayan (Tamang, 2009), Phillipine (Chinte-Sanchez, 2009), or some other part of the world (H. Davis & Katz, 2019; Mollison, 1993).

Current Inspirations

 

Chelsea Green is a great publishing house for many great resources on fermentation. i have participated in the production of a couple publications through them (Katz, 2012; Zimmerman, 2015). Jeremy Zimmerman has written another book for them as well (Zimmerman, 2018). Sandor Katz (2006, 2020, 2021; 2016) is a living legend in the realm of fermentation and sustainable living in general. 

Pascal Baudar is incredibly inventive and inspiring as well (2016, 2018, 2020). He is probably the closest person i have seen to the style i and others are working with to help popularize in the Appalachian region. Tara Whitsett is someone who i also feel privileged to have met in her travels around the country spreading the good word about fermentation technology (Whitsitt, 2017).

The area around Asheville, NC is full of really inspiring fermenters. We even have a whole Fermentation Festival!

e.g. April Rainstar, Booda, Botanist and Barrel, Buchi, Fermenti, Locally Good, Miso Master, Pure Fire, Serotonin Ferments, Shanti Jun Elixers, Smiling Hara Tempeh, Soul Shine Farm and Ferments, Sweet Brine’d, and Yoga Bucha are all examples of businesses featured at the festival linked above. Dare Vegan Cheese is one local favorite plant based ferment business not featured among the plethora of vendors at the previously mentioned festival. This is a great example of ideas for every community throughout the world to potentially adopt. Think Dosaries, Junneries, Krauteries, Kvasseries, Meaderies, Picklers, Seed Cheeseries, Sodaeries and Vinegar Makers.

Benefits

Fermented foods act as probiotics which help aid digestion and ward off disease. Challenging microbes may also be held in check through the presence of beneficial micro-flora thereby improving the overall microbiome. Lactobacillus for instance can ward off Shigella, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli 0157:H7.

Microbiome considerations include the fact that we have 10 times more microbiological cells than human cells and 300 times the genes within our body (Marchesi, 2014). The microbiome is affected by many factors including method of birth, breast feeding, prebiotics, antibiotics, genetics, travel exposure and pets (Blaser, 2014; Courage, 2019; Kellman, 2014; Perlmutter, 2015; Yatsunenko et al., 2012; Yong, 2018).

Nutrients are also made more available through the process of fermentation. Digestive enzymes are created that help the body break down complex proteins. The complex proteins of soybeans for example are broken into more simple amino acids. Lactose in milk is broken into lactic acid. B vitamins are created. However, the B12 is an inactive analog. Detoxifying compounds created include glutathione, phospholipids, and beta 1,3 glucans. Some fermented products are also alkalizing (Katz & Morell, 2016).

Potentially deleterious compounds may be broken down in the process of fermentation. Phytic acid which blocks the absorption of zinc is broken down. Other compounds potentially removed by fermentation include oxalic acid, nitrites, nitrates, nitrosamine, radiation, heavy metals and glucocides (Katz, 2012).

Fermentation also adds variety, unique textures and flavors to foods. Umami is a term used to define this flavor (Anthony et al., 2014; Matsuhisa et al., 2009; Mouritsen & Styrbæk, 2014; Umansky et al., 2020).

Techniques

There are various forms of fermentation that keep out air. These include crocks, carboys, and jars. Don’t use aluminum, chipped ceramics or many plastics they may leach compounds into the food. Most fermentation processes are aerobic including vinegar, kombucha, seed cheese, dosas, dairy cheese and sourdough.            

 

Major ferments factors: Time, Temperature, pH, non-iodized Salt, Non-Chlorinated Water, Air, Light

Problem Solving

Things to look out for include fluorescent, fuzzy growths, and butyric acid. Downsizing containers as necessary is also helpful. Stirring ferments so mold is not able to set up and proliferate on the surface may be necessary especially outside of refrigeration. Important to realize that fermentation is a very safe way to preserve food and enhance its flavor in general.

Recipes

Below are a few basic fundamental recipes that most everyone may benefit from incorporating into their dietary regime.

Yogurt

Yogurt is easy to make. At its simplest, heat up ½ gallon of milk to around 115 degrees. Heat milk to 145 degrees if you want to pasteurize raw milk and then cool to 115. Add in two tablespoons of yogurt from the store. Get one with a lot of different cultures as labeled on the container. You can even add a combination of varieties to get the maximum amount of beneficial cultures if you like. Immerse warm milk preferable contained in a ½ gallon mason jar into a pot partly filled with hot water. Wrap pot containing jar in blankets or sleeping bag. Let sit for 8-12 hours until desired consistency is reached. You can also put your jar in a cooler filled with hot water or possibly in the oven with a pilot amount of heat. Temps above 115 will kill the culture below 100 will leave the mix watery. Use 2 Tbs from your last batch to make a new one. You’ll find that making your own yogurt even from store bought milk can be cheaper than getting it at the store. It’s even better and often cheaper if you can find a local raw product. There is no need to buy a high priced yogurt making machine!  Yogurt cheese can be made by simply putting your finished yogurt in a strainer until the desire consistency is achieved. Kefir can be made in a similar way though best to have the culture grains. Kefir can be used with seeds or nuts but yogurt cultures only like soymilk and don’t like rice or other seeds. Some species include Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. infantis, B. longumLactobacillus bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, L. casei, L. delbrueckii, L. rhamnosus, Streptococcus cerevisiae, S. salivarius,

Sauerkraut/Kimchee

The difference to me between Sauerkraut and Kimchi is straight European cabbage with one or two flavorings i.e. (Caraway or Juniper berries) versus Asian Cabbage and the addition of Garlic, Ginger, Hot peppers and Root vegetables. Combine about 5 pounds vegetables and 3 tablespoons of sea salt per gallon into a clean ceramic or glass vessel. Vegetables should be pressed tightly into container a potato masher normally works well. Put a cover on top of vegetables and weight down. Make sure that water rises above the vegetables within a couple days or add a brine at 1 tablespoon of salt per 1cup of unchlorinated water. Allow one to two weeks for fermentation to complete. Fermentation will occur faster at higher temperatures. A temp in the 70’s or at most 80’s is ideal. If any mold appears on top then scoop it off. Mold is prevented from entering the kraut proper by lack of air and high salt concentration. The plain base can be augmented with various flavors including caraway seeds, juniper berries, hot peppers, celery seeds, etc once the kraut is done. These flavorings can be added at the beginning but this limits your options if you want to tailor small amounts to fit certain tastes. Some of the juice from mature kraut will ideally be used as a “starter” for your current batch. Sauerkraut and Kimchi are fundamental ferments for all people to try and possibly add to their repertoire (Howe, n.d.; Kaufmann & Schoneck, 2002; Shockey & Shockey, 2014).

Essene Bread

Soak wheat berries overnight. Drain and then water and drain for a few days until well sprouted.  After that grind and dehydrate or bake at low heat.  The ground wheat can be left for a day or so to sour further as well. Great flavorings include sea salt, rosemary and olive oil.

Dosa/Idli Batter

Soak 2 cups rice and 1 cup lentils for at least 8 hours in non-chlorinated water. Strain and blend with 1 cup yogurt whey, kefir, kraut juice or water. Ferment at room temperature with permeable cover for at least 12-24 hours or longer depending on flavor desired. When ready add 1 cup water and any seasonings desired (i.e. parsley, cilantro, garlic, salt, curry, hot pepper, etc) Cook as you would pancakes or bake in an oven. Make sure to use some type of fat liberally as they have a tendency to stick!

Seed Cheese

Soak seeds or nuts of your choice overnight in enough chlorine free water to allow doubling of seed volume.

Blend seeds in food processor and allow to sit for 8-20 hours depending on temperature and strength desired.

The mixture may be dehydrated for firmer consistency. Whey or kraut juice can be added for stronger flavor or faster fermentation.

Non-Alcohol Fermented Beverages

Water and Dairy Kefir

Two cultures are both called water kefir according to Sandor Katz  (2012) one called Tibicos and one sometimes called Root Beer Plant. For either add ½ cups sugar per quart of water or possibly coconut water, and put in grains. You may also experiment with other sweeteners like honey, maple syrup, rice syrup, juice, etc. Drink after two days. You may bottle for a couple days longer to carbonate and also add ¼ by volume juice during this process. BOTTLES MAY EXPLODE IF LEFT TOO LONG!!!

Species identified may be the widest ever in water kefir totaling over 453 bacterial species and strains with particular species including

Known Possible Bacteria

(Lactobacillus brevis, L. casei, L. hilgardii, L. hordei, L. nagelii), (Leuconostoc citreum, L. mesenteroides), (Acetobacter fabarum, A. orientalis), (Streptococcus lactis)

Known Possible Yeast

(Hanseniaospora valbyensis), (Lachancea fermentati), (Saccharomyces erevisiae), (Zygotorulaspora florentina)

Source: http://biologiageral.com.sapo.pt/Ficheiros/Gulitz.pdf (May 2013) and www.cultures for health.com  

Milk Kefir can be made by adding about 1 Tbs of grains per half gallon and leaving at room temp for 9-12 hours. The culture for milk kefir can also be used with seed milks. From inspection of various products from the store the stated species composition can include Bifidobacterium lactis, Candida kefyr, Lactobacillus casei, L. kefyr, L. lactis, L. rhamnosus, Lactococcus cremoris, L. diacetylactis, Leuconostoc cremoris,  and Saccharomyces unisporus. Here’s a great article from the website Nourishing Plot that cites academic literature about the probiotic count of dairy Kefir.

Kombucha/Jun

1 cup sugar, one gallon of typically black tea. Jun is the same process except use honey instead. Store in glass or unchipped ceramic covered with a cloth. Avoid using metal when possible and never use Aluminum. The beverage will be ready in one to two weeks. Refrigerate to stop process. Bottle with top sealed to make sparkling (MAKE SURE TO USE THICK BOTTLES WITH BALE TOPS AND CHECK PRESSURE PERSIODICALLY TO PREVENT EXPLOSIONS). Kombucha has quite a bit of literature as one might imagine (Crum et al., 2016; H. Davis & Katz, 2019; Evans, 2018; Hobbs, 1995; Lewin & Guajardo, 2019).

 

Beet Kvass

This is a recipe adapted from Sally Fallon’s  (1999) foundational book Nourishing Traditions. Peel and chop 2-3 beets add ¼ cup whey and 1T of salt and enough water to fill a ½ gallon. Allow to sit at room temperature with a breathable cover for 48-72 hours. However, Kvass can mean a wide range of things including a bread and mint based beverage as well (Evans, 2018; Katz & Morell, 2016).

Root and or Shoot, Fruit Soda

Make ginger “bug” by adding 2 tsp ginger, 2 tsp sugar to 1 cup chlorine free water in a jar with a breathable cover. Continue adding the same amount of sugar and ginger every day or two until ready to brew (at least a few days to get bug bubbling) Boil 15 cups water plus half cup any roots of choice then steep any leaves, seeds, fruits until strength desired. Add 1.25 cups sugar. Add 1.5 cups if using honey. You can also just use juice. Cool, then strain mixture and add strained bug or packaged culture and optionally the juice of two lemons. Bottle and leave to ferment for up to two weeks for bug and one to two days at most for packaged culture. Flip top bottles with thicker glass are ideal.

Cool, open and enjoy. May be very effervescent, have your glass ready! Brews left at warm temps for too long may EXPLODE forcefully! Fermenting in plastic two liter bottle allows for a visible notification of the level of carbonation. Store the soda in covered boxes to avoid big messes and potentially dangerous situations. i have come across a few great resources for making your own sodas (Christensen, 2013; Cresswell, 1998; Schloss, 2011). MSN has an interesting article about some of the World’s Most Outrageous Soda Flavors. Here’s a BBC article about the neat Finnish beverage known as Sima. i came across a shocking article about the Nazi past of the Coca Cola owned Fanta soda as well.

Shrubs, Switchels and Oxymels

The items above are some classic vinegar based beverages (Dietsch & Clarke, 2016; Han, 2015; Malle & Schmickl, 2015; Rosenblum, 2017). These offer a great alternative for people that want to avoid alcohol. A whole industry around the preparation of Mocktails has understandably ensued (Bobrow & Dobard, 2015; Muir, 2015, 2018).

Alcohol Containing Beverages

Mead

Mead making can be as simple or complex as you’d like to make it. At its simplest mead making is a very affordable way to make many delectable alcoholic beverages. With greater complexity the world of possibility is practically limitless. The story of Honey diversity is one to celebrate for one. Some examples include Wildflower, Sourwood, Tupelo, Orange Blossom, Blackberry, Clover, Buckwheat, Star Thistle, Saw Palmetto, Basswood, Gallberry, Black Locust, Mangrove, Brazilian Pepper, and Tallow.

    

Local honey is reputed to help with allergies and buying in bulk from beekeeper helps keep cost low…

The Story of Mead making culture and cultural fermentation in general (People, Places, Times of year, etc)

 

Basic Mead Making Recipe

Materials:

Honey (add 3-4 cups/gallon total liquid) Stainless Steel Pot, Carboys/Fermentation Vessels, Airlocks, Stirring Spoon, Measuring Spoons, Funnels, Tubing, Racking Cane/Tube, Bottles, Corks, Caps, Corker, Capper, Yeast, Hydrometer, Strainers, Most Important some type of  record keeping apparatus

i have in the past, but now don’t personally often use acid blends, tannins, yeast nutrient, or sulfites just for simplicity sake. Meads and wines i have made seem just fine without them. However, after about 5 – 8 years they may lose some characteristics without the use of preservatives.

Process:

The process for making mead can be very simple literally just adding honey to water at its most basic. i normally take the process a bit further in complexity. Heat water, herbs, roots, fruits and honey to 150 degrees Fahrenheit or at least warm enough to blend. Cool to 90 degrees. Pitch yeast into mixture. A primed starter culture will help the process go faster but is not always necessary with small batches or fresh yeast. Affix airlock. Place in a location out of light in a temperate place. Wrapping in a blanket etc is one way to attain such conditions in the winter. Wait until bubbling in airlock is down to once every few minutes or completely stopped. Rack into a new container as many times as desired to achieve appropriate clarity. Sterilize bottles and fill. Meads taste best after at least six months to one year of aging. However, they may be enjoyed at every stage of development.

Ingredients

Leaves            (Strain before pitching)     Fruits                Seeds               Roots (ex. ¾# per 5 gal ginger)

Variations of Mead:

You can add fruit juice or ground whole fruit. This would be a Melomel. Add one gallon fruit for a five/six gallon batch. Particular melomels include: Grape (Pyment), Apple (Cyser), Pear (Pyser), Mulberry (Morat) Elder/Blueberry (Sambucinium). You can add medicinal elements. This would make it a Metheglin. Adding roots creates a (Rhizomel) and when adding Mushrooms i have coined the term (Mycomel). You can add various other culinary herbs and spices and i have documented use of over 200 species of plants and fungi among myself and my friends. Add one cup of fresh herbs or half a cup dry per gallon of mead mix for starters and then adjust to taste.

Types of Yeast

Companies include Lalvin, Red Star, Fermentis, White Labs. Saccharomyces bayanus or Champagne  is the sp. that makes the most alcohol and works in a wider temp range  i.e. (EC-1118, Lalvin  & Yellow Packet, Red Star). S. cerevisiae Montrachet, Red Star (good for fruit/color extraction), D 47 Lalvin (a favorite but low alcohol tolerance).  These dried yeast come in a packet with sufficient quantity to make 5 gallons. If making less volume than that one can use a portion and fold up the packet and store it in fridge for a few weeks to months. Dried bread yeast from the grocery store can be used as well but does not taste as good in wine.

White labs liquid yeast features some strains especially formulated for Mead and Cider. It is clearly more expensive. i have only worked with these on a limited basis and am hard pressed to say whether it is a better product. Here are a few books on the subject (Boulton & Quain, 2006; Swiegers & Pretorius, 2005; White & Zainasheff, 2010).

General Processes and Principles

“Design to Recline” a concept i picked up on from Earthaven Ecovillage and interpret to mean, do the least work necessary that is still effective and requires minimum upkeep and maintenance.

Alcohol content can be measured with a Hydrometer. This is a low tech and inexpensive piece of equipment that basically measures density as related to sugar concentration and thereby potential alcohol production.

There are a lot of types of sanitation i.e. One Step (Oxygen), Acid, Bleach, Baking, Campden (Sulfite) Tablets, Boiling Water, Iodine. i tend to use boiling water or Iodine.

Sometimes ferments get stuck and stop working prematurely. One may raise temperature or add more yeast or simply drink sweet. Insulate brew vessels from cold temps in winter to keep the ball rolling. Temperatures (70-90 Fahrenheit is ideal) Above 90 can get funky. Below 70 fermentation moves slower and might stop.

Bottling

Sterilize infrastructure otherwise vinegar organisms like Acetobacter spp. and Gluconobacter spp. can infect. Use a siphon and fill bottles to within 1-2” of the top. Avoid pulling up yeast from below by securing racking cane at least an inch off the bottom. For sparkling beverages add about 1tsp sugar, 1.5 tsp honey or one raisin per 12 oz bottle. Open carefully! Don’t overprime!!! Otherwise bottles may explode!!! Flip top bottles have thicker glass and are easier to use for releasing pressure.

Additives

Yeast nutrient is not something that i typically use as it has never been observed by me to be needed.

There are a lot of different kinds of acids:

                   Tartaric, Acid, (Grapes)

Malic Acid, (Apples, Apricots, Blackberries, Cherries, Plums, Nectarines, Rhubarb, Gooseberries,)

Citric Acid (Oranges, Lemons, Currants, Strawberries, Raspberries, Tangerines)

Tannins: Store Bought, Natural (Oak, Chestnut, Grape leaves, Rubus spp. leaves)

There are various kinds of clearing agents i.e. Pectin Enzyme, Bentonite, Egg shells. I have rarely used any of these as i find no need to have such a refined product.

Storing

Store around room temperature or cooler. Wait a few weeks to enjoy the bulk of your beer/ale/cider and ideally a year for the majority of wine and mead. However, you can enjoy tasting at every stage of development.

Quite a literature has explored the story of Mead around the world (Duncan & Acton, 2013; Ga, 2016; Gayre & Papazian, 1998; Koguchi et al., 2009; Kublickas, 2016; Lee et al., 2012; Minnick, 2018; Morse, 1980; Piatz, 2014; Ratliff, 2017; Schramm, 2003; Šmogrovičová et al., 2012; Stuckler, 2013; Vargas & Gulling, 1999; Zimmerman, 2015).

Herbal Beer

1 gallon water, 1.5 lbs liquid malt, 1 cup chopped leafy material, ¼ cup sugar for priming. Heat malt in water at around 150 degrees Fahrenheit for 90 minutes. Steep leafy material in hot liquid for at least half hour. Transfer liquid to carboy, cool to around70 degrees and pitch culture. Follow directions for mead above for bottling.  Charlie  Papazian (1994, 2003) is a legendary author of instruction guides regarding brewing beers. Of course many other guides have been written in the meantime as well (P. Brown, 2018; Buhner, 1998; Kunath, 2018; Loftus, 2014; W. Moore, 1991; Shapla, 2012; Zimmerman, 2018). Hops (Humulus lupulus) are probably the most famous plant ingredient in what people think of as beer beyond the  barley or other grain (Beach, 2001; Edwardson, 1952; Eyck & Gehring, 2016; Heilshorn, 2017; Hieronymus, 2012).

Quite a number of authors have celebrated the diversity of beers across the world

 (Colen & Swinnen, 2011; Colicchio, 2011; Hampson, 2014; Hoalst-Pullen et al., 2017; Jackson et al., 2007; McGovern & Calagione, 2017; Mosher et al., 2017; Webb & Beaumont, 2016).

 Some have focused on the beer traditions of the United States in particular (DeBenedetti, 2016; Donovan, 2020; Hieronymus, 2016; Lebow, 2020; Ogle, 2007; K. Wells, 2004). Here is an article by Vinepair about the biggest breweries in each state of the USA.

Still others have taken a bioregional approach to looking at industries in certain states or cities of the USA (DeNote, 2014; Flanigan, 2017; Glenn, 2012; Myers & Ficke, 2016; Revolinski, 2018; Staudter & Krakowski, 2014).

            Beer making is big business as there are now over 8,000 breweries in the United States alone comprising billions of dollars in business. It remains to be seen what the current global disruption will cause to the industry.

That said quite a number of publications have looked at the beer business from economic and entrepreneurial perspectives (Calagione, 2011; Cantwell, 2013; Hennessy, 2015; Reeves, 2019; Swinnen, 2011). Here is an interesting BBC article about the history of beer.

Simple Liqueur

Immerse plants of choice into an 80 proof alcohol or stronger. Agitate bottle periodically for a period of two weeks to two months. Tasting until desired strength is attained. Add honey in a ratio of about 1:4 or to taste up to 1:3 to your strained alcohol tincture for a simple medicinal liqueur. Liqueurs are one of my favorite things to make and a number of great authors have taken on this subject matter (Bobrow, 2013; Durkan, 1998; Parsons, 2016; Schloss, 2013).

A great literature has cropped up around the botany of alcohol containing botanical beverages in general as well (Ahmed et al., 2018; McGowan, 2018; Stewart, 2013; Walker & Nesbitt, 2020).

i came across a non-alcohol containing liquor alternative called Ritual Zero Proof but don’t know how applicable that would be in this circumstance especially stored without refrigeration as the alcohol acts as a preservative.

Conclusion

            Plants and fungi are intrinsically linked. This class has elucidated many of the fantastic ways in which we can witness these connections. i hope you are encouraged to get out and find some fungi to forage and or make use of various organisms from the fungal realm in your culinary preparations. i have found the Fungal kingdom to be a never ending source of learning and fascination and one of my greatest goals in life is to spread that feeling to as many people as possible far and wide.

For the next class we will cover major Desert Plants and it will be posted around November 20th

Below are items to think about/comment on. Please write me directly at marc@botanyeveryday.com or leave information in the commentary under this class.

I WOULD REALLY LOVE TO HEAR WHAT YOU HAVE TO SAY!!!

-          Make a list of the mushrooms around you and share that info  with some people.

-           Make a ferment

-          Look up some of the families mentioned in this post in Botany in a Day and share some information about them  with the group. Or provide info from your personal experience

-         Attend a workshop or a class and write up a brief description of fungi/plants or information learned.

-         Post any clear photos of question plants to Facebook or send in an email.

Praises to all that have donated to the cause!!! i encourage everyone reading this to donate as they are able financially, commentarialy, or energetically... Your contributions greatly help me continue this crucial work of ethnobotanical research and education. Please let me know your thoughts in general and any way i can help this class serve you best.

Thanks, marc

References

Abenavoli, L., Izzo, A. A., Milić, N., Cicala, C., Santini, A., & Capasso, R. (2018). Milk thistle (Silybum marianum): A concise overview on its chemistry, pharmacological, and nutraceutical uses in liver diseases. Phytotherapy Research, 32(11), 2202–2213. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6171

Ahmed, S., Duval, A., & Meyer, R. (2018). Botany at the Bar: The Art and Science of Making Bitters. The Ivy Press.

Akpaja, E. O., Isikhuemhen, O. S., & Okhuoya, J. A. (2003). Ethnomycology and Usage of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms Among the Igbo People of Nigeria. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 5(3). https://doi.org/10.1615/InterJMedicMush.v5.i3.100

Alexopoulos, C. J., Mims, C. W., & Blackwell, M. M. (1996). Introductory Mycology (4th ed.). Wiley.

Allen, J. L. (2017). Testing lichen transplant methods for conservation applications in the southern Appalachian Mountains, North Carolina, U.S.A. The Bryologist, 120(3), 311–319. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745-120.3.311

Allen, J. L. (2021). Urban Lichens: A Field Guide for Northeastern North America. Yale University Press.

Allen, J. L., McMullin, R. T., Tripp, E. A., & Lendemer, J. C. (2019). Lichen conservation in North America: A review of current practices and research in Canada and the United States. Biodiversity and Conservation, 28(12), 3103–3138. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-019-01827-3

Ammirati, J. F., James A. Traquair, and Paul A. Horgen. (1985). Poisonous Mushrooms of the Northern United States and Canada. University of Minnesota.

Ammirati, J., & Trudell, S. (2009). Mushrooms of the Pacific Northwest: Timber Press Field Guide. Timber Press.

Anthony, M., Blumenthal, H., Bourdas, A., Kinch, D., Martinez, V., Matsuhisa, N., Murata, Y., Schiaffino, P. M., Nagae, K., Cursan, R., Prescott, J., Mouritsen, O. G., Keller, T., & McGee, H. (2014). Umami: The Fifth Taste. Japan Publications Trading.

Arora, D. (1986). Mushrooms Demystified (2 edition). Ten Speed Press.

Arora, D. (1991). All That the Rain Promises and More: A Hip Pocket Guide to Western Mushrooms. Ten Speed Press.

Árvay, J., Tomáš, J., Hauptvogl, M., Kopernická, M., Kováčik, A., Bajčan, D., & Massányi, P. (2014). Contamination of wild-grown edible mushrooms by heavy metals in a former mercury-mining area. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, 49(11), 815–827. https://doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2014.938550

Babel, K. (2011). Mushrooms for Health and Longevity. Books Alive.

Bailleu, V. (2016). The Secrets of Trufficulture: Cultivating Truffles. lulu.com.

Baker, R. E. D., & Dale, W. T. (1951). Fungi of Trinidad and Tobago. Kew.

Barcan, V. Sh., Kovnatsky, E. F., & Smetannikova, M. S. (1998). Absorption of Heavy Metals in Wild Berries and Edible Mushrooms in an Area Affected by Smelter Emissions. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 103(1), 173–195. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004972632578

Baudar, P. (2016). The New Wildcrafted Cuisine: Exploring the Exotic Gastronomy of Local Terroir. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Baudar, P. (2018). The Wildcrafting Brewer: Creating Unique Drinks and Boozy Concoctions from Nature’s Ingredients. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Baudar, P. (2020). Wildcrafted Fermentation: Exploring, Transforming, and Preserving the Wild Flavors of Your Local Terroir. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Beach, D. R. (2001). Homegrown Hops: An Illustrated How-to-Do-It Manual (2nd ed.). D.R. Beach.

Beardslee, H. C. (1918). The Russulas of North Carolina. University Press.

Benjamin, D. R. (1995). Mushrooms: Poisons and Panaces: A Handbook for Naturalists, Mycologists and Physicians. W.H. Freeman & Company.

Besl, H. B. A. ; (1989). A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Fungi. Manson Publishing Ltd.

Bessette, A. (1988). Mushrooms of the Adirondacks: A Field Guide. North Country Books Inc.

Bessette, A. (2009). Milk Mushrooms of North America: A Field Identification Guide to the Genus Lactarius. Syracuse University Press.

Bessette, A. (2010). North American Boletes: A Color Guide to the Fleshy Pored Mushrooms. Syracuse University Press.

Bessette, A. (2012). Waxcap Mushrooms of Eastern North America. Syracuse University Press.

Bessette, A., Bessette, A., & Neill, W. J. (2001). Mushrooms of Cape Cod and the National Seashore. Syracuse University Press.

Bessette, A., Bessette, A. R., & Hopping, M. (2018). A Field Guide to Mushrooms of the Carolinas.

Bessette, A. E., Bessette, A. R., & Lewis, D. P. (2019). Mushrooms of the Gulf Coast States: A Field Guide to Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. University of Texas Press.

Bessette, A. E., Fischer, D. W., Bessette, A. R., & more, & 0. (1996). Mushrooms of Northeastern North America. Syracuse University Press.

Bessette, A. E., Roody, W. C., Bessette, A. R., & Dunaway, D. L. (2007). Mushrooms of the Southeastern United States. Syracuse Univ Press.

Bessette, A. E., Smith, D., & Bessette, A. R. (2021). Polypores and Similar Fungi of Eastern and Central North America. University of Texas Press.

Bessette, A. R., & Bessette, A. E. (2001). The Rainbow Beneath My Feet: A Mushroom Dyer’s Field Guide (First Ed.). Syracuse University Press.

Bessette, A., Roody, W. C., & Bessette, A. (2017). Boletes of Eastern North America. Syracuse University Press.

Binion, D., Stephenson, S., Roody, W., Burdsall, H. H., Miller, O. K., & Vasilyeva, L. (2008). Macrofungi Associated with Oaks of Eastern North America. West Virginia University Press.

Blaser, M. J. (2014). Missing microbes: How the overuse of antibiotics is fueling our modern plagues.

Bobrow, W. (2013). Apothecary Cocktails: Restorative Drinks from Yesterday and Today (Spi edition). Fair Winds Press.

Bobrow, W., & Dobard, P. M. (2015). Bitters and Shrub Syrup Cocktails: Restorative Vintage Cocktails, Mocktails, and Elixirs (Spiral edition). Fair Winds Press.

Bolton, E. M. (1972). Lichens for vegetable dyeing. Studio Vista Publishers ; Robin & Russ Handweavers.

Both, E. E. (1993). The Boletes of North America: A Compendium. Buffalo Society of Natl Sciences.

Boulton, C. M., & Quain, D. (2006). Brewing Yeast and Fermentation (1st ed.). Wiley-Blackwell.

Bray, R. (2019). Mushroom Cultivation: 12 Ways to Become the MacGyver of Mushrooms.

Bray, R. (2020). Medicinal Mushrooms: A Practical Guide to Healing Mushrooms. Independently published.

Brodo, I. M., Sharnoff, M. S. D., & Sharnoff, S. (2001). Lichens of North America. Yale University Press.

Brodo, I. M., Sharnoff, S. D., & Sharnoff, S. (2016). Keys to Lichens of North America (Rev). Yale University Press.

Brown, G., Hall, I. R., Zambonelli, A., & more, & 0. (2008). Taming the Truffle: The History, Lore, and Science of the Ultimate Mushroom. Timber Press.

Brown, P. (2018). Miracle Brew: Hops, Barley, Water, Yeast and the Nature of Beer. Unbound.

Buhner, S. H. (1998). Sacred and Herbal Healing Beers: The Secrets of Ancient Fermentation. Siris Books.

Calagione, S. (2011). Brewing up a business: Adventures in beer from the founder of Dogfish Head Craft Brewery. Wiley.

Calderón Fallas, R. (2005). Hongos de Costa Rica. EUNA.

Cannon, P. F., & Kirk, P. M. (2007). Fungal Families of the World. CABI.

Cantwell, D. (2013). The Brewers Association’s Guide to Starting Your Own Brewery (2nd ed.). Brewers Publications.

Casselman, K. D. (1994). Historical and Modern Lichen Dyes: Some Ethical Considerations. Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History.

Casselman, K. D. (2001). Lichen Dyes and Dyeing a Critical Bibliography of the European and North American Literature in a Culturally Marginalized Field. Library and Archives Canada.

Casselman, K. D. (2011). Lichen Dyes: The New Source Book. Dover Publications.

Chang, S. Y. (1982). Tropical Mushrooms: Biological Nature & Cultivation Methods: Volvariella, Pleurotus, & Auricularia. The Chinese University Press.

Chaverri, P., Huhndorf, S. M., Rogers, J. D., & Samuels, G. J. (2011). Microhongos Comunes de Costa Rica y Otras Regiones Tropicales / Common Microfungi of Costa Rica and other Tropical Regions (1st Edition). Editorial INBio.

Chen, X.-H., Zhou, H.-B., & Qiu, G.-Z. (2009). Analysis of Several Heavy Metals in Wild Edible Mushrooms from Regions of China. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 83(2), 280. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-009-9767-8

Chinte-Sanchez, P. (2009). Philippine Fermented Foods: Principles and Technology. University of the Philippines Press.

Christensen, E. (2013). True Brews: How to Craft Fermented Cider, Beer, Wine, Sake, Soda, Mead, Kefir, and Kombucha at Home. Ten Speed Press.

Ciju, R. J. (2012). Mushroom Farming 21 Rules for Success. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Cocchi, L., Vescovi, L., Petrini, L. E., & Petrini, O. (2006). Heavy metals in edible mushrooms in Italy. Food Chemistry, 98(2), 277–284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.068

Coker, W., & Beers, A. (1974). The Boleti of North Carolina. Dover Publications.

Colen, L., & Swinnen, J. (2011). Beer Drinking Nations—The Determinants of Global Beer Consumption (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 1752829). Social Science Research Network. http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=1752829

Colicchio, T. (2011). The Oxford Companion to Beer (G. Oliver, Ed.). Oxford University Press.

Cook, L. (2013). The Mushroom Hunters: On the Trail of an Underground America. Ballantine Books.

Cotter, T. (2014). Organic Mushroom Farming and Mycoremediation: Simple to Advanced and Experimental Techniques for Indoor and Outdoor Cultivation. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Courage, K. H. (2019). Cultured: How Ancient Foods Can Feed Our Microbiome. Avery.

Cresswell, S. (1998). Homemade Root Beer, Soda and Pop. Storey Publishing, LLC.

Crum, H., LaGory, A., & Katz, S. E. (2016). The Big Book of Kombucha: Brewing, Flavoring, and Enjoying the Health Benefits of Fermented Tea. Storey Publishing, LLC.

Czarnecki, J. (2019). Truffle In The Kitchen: A Cook’s Guide. Oregon Truffle Oil.

Darwish, L. (2013). Earth Repair: A Grassroots Guide to Healing Toxic and Damaged Landscapes. New Society Publishers.

Davis, H., & Katz, S. E. (2019). Ferment: A Guide to the Ancient Art of Culturing Foods, from Kombucha to Sourdough. Chronicle Books.

Davis, R. M., Sommer, R., Menge, J. A., & more, & 0. (2012). Field Guide to Mushrooms of Western North America. University of California Press.

DeBenedetti, C. (2016). The Great American Ale Trail: The Craft Beer Lover’s Guide to the Best Watering Holes in the Nation (Rev). Running Press Adult.

Degreef, J., Demuynck, L., Mukandera, A., Nyirandayambaje, G., Nzigidahera, B., & De Kesel, A. (2016). Wild edible mushrooms, a valuable resource for food security and rural development in Burundi and Rwanda. BASE. https://doi.org/10.25518/1780-4507.13181

Delgat, L., Dierickx, G., De Wilde, S., Angelini, C., De Crop, E., De Lange, R., Halling, R., Manz, C., Nuytinck, J., & Verbeken, A. (2019). Looks can be deceiving: The deceptive milkcaps (Lactifluus, Russulaceae) exhibit low morphological variance but harbour high genetic diversity. IMA Fungus, 10(1), 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43008-019-0017-3

DeNote, M. (2014). The Great Florida Craft Beer Guide. Seaside Publishing.

Dentinger, B. T. M., Ammirati, J. F., Both, E. E., Desjardin, D. E., Halling, R. E., Henkel, T. W., Moreau, P.-A., Nagasawa, E., Soytong, K., Taylor, A. F., Watling, R., Moncalvo, J.-M., & McLaughlin, D. J. (2010). Molecular phylogenetics of porcini mushrooms (Boletus section Boletus). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 57(3), 1276–1292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2010.10.004

Desjardin, D. E. (2002). Mushrooms of Hawai’i: An Identification Guide. Ten Speed Press.

Desjardin, D. E., Wood, M. G., & Stevens, F. A. (2015). California Mushrooms. Timber Press.

Dietsch, M., & Clarke, P. (2016). Shrubs: An Old-Fashioned Drink for Modern Times (2nd ed.). Countryman Press.

Dirar, H. A. (1993). The Indigenous Fermented Food of the Sudan: A Study of African Food and Nutrition. CABI.

Donovan, M. (2020). Craft Beer Brewery Guide to All 50 States: A Comprehensive Travel Guide to Over 1000 Breweries, Taprooms, Beer Gardens & Brewpubs in the U.S.A. Independently published.

Dugan, F. M. (2006). The Identification of Fungi: An Illustrated Introduction With Keys, Glossary, And Guide to Literature (Spi edition). Amer Phytopathological Society.

Dugan, F. M. (2011). Conspectus of World Ethnomycology: Fungi in Ceremonies, Crafts, Diets, Medicines,and Myths. Amer Phytopathological Society.

Duncan, P., & Acton, B. (2013). Making Your Own Mead: 43 Recipes for Homemade Honey Wines. Fox Chapel Publishing.

Durkan, A. (1998). Teach Yourself Spirits and Liqueurs. NTC/Contemporary Publishing Company.

Earle, F. S. (1902). A Key to the North American Species of Russula. Torreya, 2(7), 101–103.

Edwardson, J. (1952). Hops;Their botany, history, production and utilization. Economic Botany, 6(2), 160–175. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02984875

Elliott, T. F., & Stephenson, S. L. (2018). Mushrooms of the Southeast.

Espejel, E. A. R., Alvarez, O. C., Muñoz, J. M. M., Mateos, M. del R. G., León, M. T. B. C., & Damián, M. T. M. (2019). Physicochemical quality, antioxidant capacity and nutritional value of edible flowers of some wild dahlia species. Folia Horticulturae, 31(2), 331–342. https://doi.org/10.2478/fhort-2019-0026

Estrada, A., Wasson, R. G., & Rothenberg, J. (1981). Maria Sabina: Her Life and Chants (H. Munn, Trans.). Ross Erikson.

Evans, F. (2018). Fermented Probiotic Drinks at Home: Make Your Own Kombucha, Kefir, Ginger Bug, Jun, Pineapple Tepache, Honey Mead, Beet Kvass, and More. The Experiment.

Eyck, L. T., & Gehring, D. (2016). The Hop Grower’s Handbook: The Essential Guide for Sustainable, Small-Scale Production for Home and Market. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Fallon, S. (1999). Nourishing Traditions: The Cookbook that Challenges Politically Correct Nutrition and the Diet Dictocrats (Revised and Updated 2nd). NewTrends Publishing.

Fergus, C. L., & Fergus, C. (2003). Common Edible & Poisonous Mushrooms of the Northeast (1 edition). Stackpole Books.

Fernandes, T., Garrine, C., Ferrão, J., Bell, V., & Varzakas, T. (2021). Mushroom Nutrition as Preventative Healthcare in Sub-Saharan Africa. Applied Sciences, 11(9), Article 9. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11094221

Flanigan, K. (2017). Beer Lover’s Wisconsin: Best Breweries, Brewpubs and Beer Bars. Globe Pequot.

Ga, C. (2016). African mead: Biotechnology and indigenous knowledge systems in iQhilika process development [Doctoral Dissertation, Rhodes University]. http://nrfnexus.nrf.ac.za/handle/20.500.11892/21293

Gayre, R., & Papazian, C. (1998). Brewing Mead: Wassail! In Mazers of Mead: The Intriguing History of the Beverage of Kings and Easy, Step-by-Step Instructions for Brewing It At Home. Brewers Publications.

Giordani, P., Benesperi, R., Bianchi, E., Malaspina, P., & Nascimbene, J. (2020). Threats and Conservation Strategies for Overlooked Organisms: The Case of Epiphytic Lichens. In V. Shukla & N. Kumar (Eds.), Environmental Concerns and Sustainable Development: Volume 2: Biodiversity, Soil and Waste Management (pp. 1–26). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6358-0_1

Glenn, A. F. (2012). Asheville beer: An intoxicating history of mountain brewing. History Press.

Gordon, F. A. (1980). Dyeing with Sticta Coronata, New Zealand’s King of the Dye Lichens. Naturally.

Hale, J. M. E. (1961). Lichen Handbook: A Guide to the Lichens of Eastern North America. Smithsonian Institution.

Halling, R. E., & Mueller, G. M. (1999). New boletes from Costa Rica. Mycologia, 91(5), 893–899. https://doi.org/10.1080/00275514.1999.12061095

Halling, R. E., & Mueller, G. M. (2004). Common Mushrooms Of The Talamanca Mountains, Costa Rica. New York Botanical Garden.

Hallock, R. M. (2019). A Mushroom Word Guide: Etymology, Pronunciation, and Meanings of over 1,500 Words (2nd ed.). Independently published.

Halpern, G. M. (2007). Healing Mushrooms: Effective Treatments for Today’s Illnesses. Square One.

Hampson, T. (Ed.). (2014). The Beer Book: Your Drinking Companion to Over 1,700 Beers (Rev). DK.

Han, E. (2015). Wild Drinks & Cocktails: Handcrafted Squashes, Shrubs, Switchels, Tonics, and Infusions to Mix at Home. Fair Winds Press.

Hanlin, M. U. and R. T. (2012). Illustrated Dictionary of Mycology (2nd ed.). Amer Phytopathological Society.

Heilshorn, G. (2017). Against All Hops: Techniques and Philosophy for Creating Extraordinary Botanical Beers. Page Street Publishing.

Hennessy, T. (2015). Brewery Operations Manual (2nd ed.). Tom Hennessy.

Hesler, L. R., & Smith, A. (1979). North American Species of Lactarius. The University of Michigan Press.

Hesseltine, C. W. (1986). Indigenous Fermented Food of Non-Western Origin (H. L. Wang, Ed.). Lubrecht & Cramer Ltd.

Hieronymus, S. (2012). For the love of hops: The practical guide to aroma, bitterness, and the culture of hops. Brewers Publications, a division of the Brewers Association.

Hieronymus, S. (2016). Brewing Local: American-Grown Beer. Brewers Publications.

Hoalst-Pullen, N., Patterson, M. W., & Oliver, G. (2017). National Geographic Atlas of Beer: A Globe-Trotting Journey Through the World of Beer. National Geographic.

Hobbs, C. (1995). Kombucha: Manchurian Tea Mushroom: The Essential Guide by Christopher Hobbs. Botanica Press.

Hobbs, C. (2021). Christopher Hobbs’s Medicinal Mushrooms: The Essential Guide: Boost Immunity, Improve Memory, Fight Cancer, Stop Infection, and Expand Your Consciousness. Storey Publishing, LLC.

Hobbs, C., & Beinfield, H. (2003). Medicinal Mushrooms: An Exploration of Tradition, Healing, & Culture. Book Pub Co.

Howe, H. (n.d.). Fermentation Made Easy! Mouthwatering Sauerkraut: Master an Ancient Art of Preservation, Grow Your Own Probiotics, and Supercharge Your Gut Health.

Hume, D. (2018). Fire Making: The Forgotten Art of Conjuring Flame with Spark, Tinder, and Skill. The Experiment.

Ingham, E. (2005). The compost tea brewing manual: [Latest methods and research]. Soil Foodweb Inc.

Ingham, E., Moldenke, A. R., & Edwards, C. A. (2000). Soil biology primer. Soil and Water Conservation Society, in cooperation with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service.

Jackson, M., Gilmour, A., Hieronymus, S., Seidl, C., & Bova, L. da. (2007). Eyewitness Companions: Beer (Edition Unstated). DK.

Jacobs, R. (2019). The Truffle Underground: A Tale of Mystery, Mayhem, and Manipulation in the Shadowy Market of the World’s Most Expensive Fungus. Clarkson Potter.

Kang, Y., Łuczaj, Ł., Ye, S., Zhang, S., & Kang, J. (2012). Wild food plants and wild edible fungi of Heihe valley (Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi, central China): Herbophilia and indifference to fruits and mushrooms. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 81(4), 405–413.

Katz, S. E. (2006). The Revolution Will Not Be Microwaved: Inside America’s Underground Food Movements (First Edition edition). Chelsea Green Publishing.

Katz, S. E. (2012). The Art of Fermentation: An In-Depth Exploration of Essential Concepts and Processes from Around the World. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Katz, S. E. (2020). Fermentation as Metaphor. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Katz, S. E. (2021). Sandor Katz’s Fermentation Journeys: Recipes, Techniques, and Traditions from around the World. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Katz, S. E., & Morell, S. F. (2016). Wild Fermentation: The Flavor, Nutrition, and Craft of Live-Culture Foods (2nd ed.). Chelsea Green Publishing.

Kaufmann, K., & Schoneck, A. (2002). Making Sauerkraut and Pickled Vegetables at Home: Creative Recipes for Lactic Fermented Food to Improve Your Health. Alive Books.

Kellman, R. (2014). The Microbiome Diet: The Scientifically Proven Way to Restore Your Gut Health and Achieve Permanent Weight Loss. Da Capo Lifelong Books.

Kendrick, B. (2017). The Fifth Kingdom (4th ed.). Focus.

Kilkan, J. (2016). Poisonous Mushrooms You Shouldn’t Be Tricked With: A Must Have Book For Mushroom Hunting: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Kim, K. H., Noh, H. J., Choi, S. U., Park, K. M., Seok, S.-J., & Lee, K. R. (2010). Russulfoen, a new cytotoxic marasmane sesquiterpene from Russula foetens. The Journal of Antibiotics, 63(9), 575–577. https://doi.org/10.1038/ja.2010.84

Kimbrough, J. W. (2000). Common Florida mushrooms (2nd ed.). Florida Cooperative Extension Service.

Koguchi, M., Saigusa, N., & Teramoto, Y. (2009). Production and Antioxidative Activity of Mead Made From Honey and Black Rice (Oryza sativa var. Indica cv. Shiun). Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 115(3), 238–242. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2050-0416.2009.tb00375.x

Kokkoris, V., Massas, I., Polemis, E., Koutrotsios, G., & Zervakis, G. I. (2019). Accumulation of heavy metals by wild edible mushrooms with respect to soil substrates in the Athens metropolitan area (Greece). Science of The Total Environment, 685, 280–296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.447

Kublickas, R. (2016). Midus: A Traditional Lithuanian Mead. In Traditional Foods (pp. 339–343). Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-7648-2_27

Kunath, B. (2018). The Brewer’s Handbook: How to Brew Delicious Beers at Home. Chartwell Books.

Kuo, M. (2005). Morels. University of Michigan Press/Regional.

Kuo, M., & Methven, A. S. (2014). Mushrooms of the Midwest. University of Illinois Press.

Labate, B. C., & Cavnar, C. (Eds.). (2018). Plant Medicines, Healing and Psychedelic Science: Cultural Perspectives. Springer.

Lebow, J. (2020). The United States of Craft Beer, Updated Edition: A Guide to the Best Craft Breweries Across America (Rev). Adams Media.

Lee, D. H., Kang, H.-Y., Lee, Y., Cho, C.-H., Park, I.-T., Kim, H.-D., & Lim, J.-W. (2012). Brewing and Quality Characteristics of Korean Honey Wine (Mead) with a Variety of Honey and Yeast. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 44(6), 736–742. https://doi.org/10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.6.736

Lendemer, J. C., Harris, R. C., & Tripp, E. A. (2013). The Lichens and Allied Fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: An Annotated Checklist With Comprehensive Keys. New York Botanical Garden Pr Dept.

Lendemer, J. C., Stewart, C. R. A., Besal, B., Goldsmith, J., Griffith, H., Hoffman, J. R., Kraus, B., LaPoint, P., Li, L., Muscavitch, Z., Schultz, J., Schultz, R., & Allen, J. L. (2017). The Lichens and Allied Fungi of Mount Mitchell State Park, North Carolina: A First Checklist with Comprehensive Keys and Comparison to Historical Data. Castanea, 82(2), 69–97. https://doi.org/10.2179/17-126

Levy, C. K. (1984). A field guide to poisonous plants and mushrooms of North America. Distributed in the U.S. by Dutton.

Lewin, A., & Guajardo, R. (2019). Kombucha, Kefir, and Beyond: A Fun and Flavorful Guide to Fermenting Your Own Probiotic Beverages at Home. Fair Winds Press.

Ley, B. M. (2001). Medicinal Mushrooms for Immune Enhancement: Agaricus Blazei Murill, Discover the Beta Glucan Secret (Rev). Bl Pubns.

Lim, T. K. (2014). Dahlia coccinea. In T. K. Lim (Ed.), Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 7, Flowers (pp. 329–332). Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7395-0_21

Lin, S., Mu, M., Yang, F., & Yang, C. (2015). Russula subnigricans Poisoning: From Gastrointestinal Symptoms to Rhabdomyolysis. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 26(3), 380–383. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wem.2015.03.027

Lincoff, G. (1981). National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mushrooms. Knopf.

Lindsay, W. L. (1855). Experiments on the dyeing properties of lichens. Printed by Neill and Co.

Liu, B., Huang, Q., Cai, H., Guo, X., Wang, T., & Gui, M. (2015). Study of heavy metal concentrations in wild edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, China. Food Chemistry, 188, 294–300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.05.010

Loftus, A. S. (2014). Sustainable Homebrewing: An All-Organic Approach to Crafting Great Beer. Storey Publishing, LLC.

Lonik, L. (2012). The Curious Morel (4th ed.). Stackpole Books.

Lowenfels, J. (2013). Teaming with Nutrients: The Organic Gardener’s Guide to Optimizing Plant Nutrition (5.5.2013 edition). Timber Press.

Lücking, R., Chaves, J. L., Sipman, H. J. M., Umaña, L., & Aptroot, A. (2008). A First Assessment of the Ticolichen Biodiversity Inventory in Costa Rica: The Genus Graphis , with Notes on the Genus Hemithecium (Ascomycota: Ostropales: Graphidaceae). Fbot Fieldiana Botany, 1–126.

Lynch, T. (2018). Mushroom Cultivation: An Illustrated Guide to Growing Your Own Mushrooms at Home. Quarry Books.

Malcolm, B., & Malcolm, N. (1996). The Forest Carpet: New Zealand’s Little-Noticed Forest Plants-Mosses, Lichens, Liverworts, Hornworts, Fork-Ferns, and Lycopods (Reissue edition). Timber Press.

Malle, B., & Schmickl, H. (2015). The Artisanal Vinegar Maker’s Handbook: Crafting Quality Vinegars - Fermenting, Distilling, Infusing. Spikehorn Press.

Mandrake, K., & Haze, V. (2016). The Psilocybin Mushroom Bible: The Definitive Guide to Growing and Using Magic Mushrooms (Illustrated edition). Green Candy Press.

Marchesi, J. R. (2014). The Human Microbiota and Microbiome (1 ed). CABI.

Marley, G. (2009). Mushrooms for Health: Medicinal Secrets of Northeastern Fungi. Down East Books.

Marrone, T. (2004). Abundantly Wild: Collecting and Cooking Wild Edibles in the Upper Midwest. Adventure Publications Inc.

Marrone, T., & Yerich, K. (2020). Mushrooms of the Upper Midwest: A Simple Guide to Common Mushrooms (2nd ed.). Adventure Publications.

Maser, C., Claridge, A. W., & Trappe, J. M. (2008). Trees, Truffles, and Beasts: How Forests Function. Rutgers University Press.

Mata Hidalgo, M., Lewis, E., Ávila Solera, D., & Aragón, C. (2003). Macrohongos de Costa Rica/Costa Rica mushrooms. INBio.

Mata, M., & Navarro, E. (2010). Guía Práctica para el Cultivo del Hongo Comestible, Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Sobre Troncos. Editorial InBio.

Mata, M., Soto, S., & Navarro, E. (2010). Guía Práctica para el Cultivo de Hongos Ostra. Editorial InBio.

Matsuhisa, N., Mikuni, K., Blumenthal, H., & Barbot, P. (2009). Dashi and Umami: The Heart of Japanese Cuisine. Cross Media.

Matsuura, M., Kato, S., Saikawa, Y., Nakata, M., & Hashimoto, K. (2016). Identification of Cyclopropylacetyl-(R)-carnitine, a Unique Chemical Marker of the Fatally Toxic Mushroom Russula subnigricans. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 64(6), 602–608. https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.c15-01033

Maybrier, J., & Maybrier, T. (2011). Morel Hunting: How to Find, Preserve, Care for, and Prepare the Wild Mushrooms (Reprint edition). Stackpole Books.

McClure, S. E. (1992). A natural dyer’s guide to Rocky Mountain lichens. Aspen Angora Publications.

McCoy, P. (2016). Radical mycology: A treatise on seeing and working with fungi. Chthaeus Press.

McCune, B. (2009). Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest (2nd ed.). Oregon State University Press.

McGovern, P. E., & Calagione, S. (2017). Ancient Brews: Rediscovered and Re-created. W. W. Norton & Company.

McGowan, S. L. R. (2018). Blotto Botany: A Lesson in Healing Cordials and Plant Magic. Morrow Gift.

McGrath, J. W. (1977). Dyes from lichens & plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold.

McKnight, K. H., McKnight, V. B., & Peterson, R. T. (1998). A Field Guide to Mushrooms: North America (Rev ed). Houghton Mifflin.

McMullin, T. (2022). The Secret World of Lichens: A Young Naturalist’s Guide. Firefly Books.

Meadows, I., Gaskill, K., Stefanile, L., Sharpe, S., & Davis, J. (2020). Persistence of Tuber melanosporum in truffle orchards in North Carolina, USA. Mycorrhiza. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-020-00982-8

Menser, G. P. (1996). Hallucinogenic and Poisonous Mushroom Field Guide (3rd ed.). Ronin Publishing.

Metzner, R. (2005). Sacred Mushroom of Visions: Teonanácatl: A Sourcebook on the Psilocybin Mushroom (0002nd edition). Park Street Press.

Miller, J. E. D., Villella, J., Stone, D., & Hardman, A. (2020). Using lichen communities as indicators of forest stand age and conservation value. Forest Ecology and Management, 475, 118436. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2020.118436

Minnick, F. (2018). Mead: The Libations, Legends, and Lore of History’s Oldest Drink. Running Press Adult.

Minter, D. W., Rodríguez Hernández, M., & Mena Portales, J. (2001). Fungi of the Caribbean: An annotated checklist. PDMS Publishing.

Mitchell, A. (2011). Growing and Gathering: A guide to finding, growing and harvesting local foods in lowland Central America. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Mollison, B. (1993). The Permaculture Book of Ferment and Human Nutrition. Tagari Publications.

Moore, D., Robson, G. D., & Trinci, A. P. J. (2020). 21st Century Guidebook to Fungi (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Moore, W. (1991). Home Beermaking: The Complete Beginner’s Guidebook (3rd ed.). Ferment Press.

Morse, R. A. (1980). Making Mead (Honey Wine): History, Recipes, Methods and Equipment. Wicwas Press.

Mosher, R., Daniels, R., & Calagione, S. (2017). Tasting Beer: An Insider’s Guide to the World’s Greatest Drink (2nd ed.). Storey Publishing, LLC.

Mouritsen, O. G., & Styrbæk, K. (2014). Umami: Unlocking the Secrets of the Fifth Taste (M. Johansen, Trans.). Columbia University Press.

Muir, L. (2015). Wild Cocktails from the Midnight Apothecary: Over 100 recipes using home-grown and foraged fruits, herbs, and edible flowers. CICO Books.

Muir, L. (2018). Wild Mocktails and Healthy Cocktails: Home-Grown and Foraged Low-Sugar Recipes from the Midnight Apothecary. https://bookshop.org/books/wild-mocktails-and-healthy-cocktails-home-grown-and-foraged-low-sugar-recipes-from-the-midnight-apothecary/9781782494430

Mulík, S., & Ozuna, C. (2020). Mexican edible flowers: Cultural background, traditional culinary uses, and potential health benefits. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 21, 100235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgfs.2020.100235

Murrill, W. A. (1910). Poisonous Mushrooms. Mycologia, 2(6), 255–264. https://doi.org/10.2307/3753292

Myers, E. L., & Ficke, S. H. (2016). North Carolina Craft Beer & Breweries (2 edition). Blair.

Nash, T. H. (2002). Lichen flora of the greater Sonoran Desert region V1 (Vol. 1). Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University.

Nash, T. H. (2004). Lichen flora of the greater Sonoran Desert region. V2 (Vol. 2). Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University.

Nash, T. H., Gries, C., & Bungartz, F. (2007). Lichen flora of the greater Sonoran Desert region. V3 (Vol. 3). Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University.

Njouonkou, A. L., Crop, E. D., Mbenmoun, A. M., Kinge, T. R., Biyé, E. H., & Verbeken, A. (2016). Diversity of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms Used in the Noun Division of the West Region of Cameroon. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 18(5). https://doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v18.i5.20

Ogle, M. (2007). Ambitious Brew: The Story of American Beer. Mariner Books.

Osarenkhoe, O. O., John, O. A., & Theophilus, D. A. (2014). Ethnomycological Conspectus of West African Mushrooms: An Awareness Document. Advances in Microbiology, 2014. https://doi.org/10.4236/aim.2014.41008

Osmundson, T. W., Halling, R. E., & den Bakker, H. C. (2007). Morphological and molecular evidence supporting an arbutoid mycorrhizal relationship in the Costa Rican Páramo. Mycorrhiza Mycorrhiza, 17(3), 217–222.

Papazian, C. (1994). The home brewer’s companion. Avon Books.

Papazian, C. (2003). The Complete Joy of Homebrewing (3rd ed.). Harper Paperbacks.

Papp, N., Rudolf, K., Bencsik, T., & Czégényi, D. (2017). Ethnomycological use of Fomes fomentarius (L.) Fr. And Piptoporus betulinus (Bull.) P. Karst. In Transylvania, Romania. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 64(1), 101–111. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-015-0335-2

Parsons, B. T. (2016). Amaro: The Spirited World of Bittersweet, Herbal Liqueurs, with Cocktails, Recipes, and Formulas. Ten Speed Press.

Pelouch, M. (2008). How to Find Morels. University of Michigan Press/Regional.

Perlmutter, D. (2015). Brain Maker: The Power of Gut Microbes to Heal and Protect Your Brain for Life. Little, Brown and Company.

Petersen, J. H. (2013). The Kingdom of Fungi. Princeton University Press.

Phillips, M. (2017). Mycorrhizal Planet: How Symbiotic Fungi Work with Roots to Support Plant Health and Build Soil Fertility. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Phillips, M. E. (2012). Morel Mushrooms: Best-Kept Secrets Revealed. Thunder Bay Press.

Phillips, R. (2010). Mushrooms and Other Fungi of North America (2nd ed.). Firefly Books.

Piatz, S. (2014). The Complete Guide to Making Mead: The Ingredients, Equipment, Processes, and Recipes for Crafting Honey Wine. Voyageur Press.

Pires, T. C. S. P., Dias, M. I., Barros, L., Calhelha, R. C., Alves, M. J., Oliveira, M. B. P. P., Santos-Buelga, C., & Ferreira, I. C. F. R. (2018). Edible flowers as sources of phenolic compounds with bioactive potential. Food Research International, 105, 580–588. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.11.014

Pollan, M. (2019). How to Change Your Mind: What the New Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us About Consciousness, Dying, Addiction, Depression, and Transcendence (Reprint Edition). Penguin Books.

Pope, R. (2005). Lichens above Treeline: A Hiker’s Guide to Alpine Zone Lichens of the Northeastern United States. UPNE.

Powell, M. (2013). Medicinal Mushrooms: The Essential Guide. Mycology Press.

Prasad, R. (Ed.). (2018). Mycoremediation and Environmental Sustainability (Vol. 1). Springer.

Press, B. (2020). Healing Mushrooms: A Comprehensive Guide to Using Medicinal Mushrooms. More Books LLC.

Price, -Bargain. (2009). Truffles: Earth’s Black Diamonds. Firefly Books.

Purvis, W. (2000). Lichens. Smithsonian Books.

Quimio, T. H. (2002). Tropical Mushroom Cultivation. National Book Store.

Radulescu, C., Stihi, C., Busuioc, G., Gheboianu, A. I., & Popescu, I. V. (2010). Studies Concerning Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation of Wild Edible Mushrooms from Industrial Area by Using Spectrometric Techniques. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 84(5), 641–646. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-9976-1

Randall, M. F. (2012). The Mushroom Book For Beginners: A Mycology Starter or How To Be A Backyard Mushroom Farmer And Grow The Best Edible Mushrooms At Home (2nd ed.). CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Ratcliff, G. (2016). Poisonous Mushrooms You Should Be Aware Of: A Complete Mushroom Hunter’s Guide: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Ratliff, R. D. (2017). Big Book of Mead Recipes: Over 60 Recipes From Every Mead Style (V. Rowe, Ed.). Robert Ratliff.

Ratsch, C., & Hofmann, A. (2005). The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and Its Applications. Park Street Press.

Reeves, D. C. (2019). The Microbrewery Handbook: Craft, Brew, and Build Your Own Microbrewery Success. Wiley.

Renowden, G. (2005). The Truffle Book. Limestone Hills Publishing.

Revolinski, K. (2018). Wisconsin’s Best Beer Guide (4th ed.). Thunder Bay Press Michigan.

Rice, M. (2007). Mushrooms for Dyes, Paper, Pigments, Myco Stix. Mushrooms for Color Press.

Rice, M. C., & Beebee, D. (1980). Mushrooms for Color (2nd ed.). Mad River Press.

Richardson, D. H. S. (1975). The vanishing lichens: Their history, biology and importance. David & Charles.

Roberts, P., & Evans, S. (2011). The Book of Fungi: A Life-Size Guide to Six Hundred Species from around the World (1st Edition edition). University of Chicago Press.

Rogers, R. D. (2020). Medicinal Mushrooms: The Human Clinical Trials. Independently published.

Rogers, R., & Wasser, S. P. (2011). The Fungal Pharmacy: The Complete Guide to Medicinal Mushrooms and Lichens of North America. North Atlantic Books.

Roody, W. (2003). Mushrooms of West Virginia and the Central Appalachians. The University of Kentucky Press.

Rosenblum, H. (2017). Vinegar Revival Cookbook: Artisanal Recipes for Brightening Dishes and Drinks with Homemade Vinegars. Clarkson Potter.

Russell, S. (2014). The Essential Guide to Cultivating Mushrooms: Simple and Advanced Techniques for Growing Shiitake, Oyster, Lion’s Mane, and Maitake Mushrooms at Home. Storey Publishing, LLC.

Schindler, J. (2014). Fungi for the People: Simplified Mushroom Growing for Food, Medicine, and Mycoremediation. New Society Publishers.

Schloss, A. (2011). Homemade soda. Storey Pub.

Schloss, A. (2013). Homemade Liqueurs and Infused Spirits: Innovative Flavor Combinations, Plus Homemade Versions of Kahlúa, Cointreau, and Other Popular Liqueurs. Storey Publishing, LLC.

Schramm, K. (2003). The Compleat Meadmaker: Home Production of Honey Wine from Your First Batch to Award-Winning Fruit and Herb Variations. Brewers Publications.

Schwartzberg, L., Bone, E., Simard, S., Griffiths, R., Harman, J., Richards, W., Weil, A., & Pollan, M. (2019). Fantastic Fungi: How Mushrooms Can Heal, Shift Consciousness, and Save the Planet (P. Stamets, Ed.). Earth Aware Editions.

Seid, M. M. A. (2014). Introduction to Ethnobiology: Theory & Methodology. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Sewak, D., & Sewak, K. (2016). Mycelial Mayhem: Growing Mushrooms for Fun, Profit and Companion Planting. New Society Publishers.

Shapla, K. (2012). Brew Your Medicine: How To Use Basic Kitchen Equipment To Brew Custom Herbal Beers. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Sharnoff, S., & Raven, P. H. (2014). A Field Guide to California Lichens. Yale University Press.

Sheldrake, M. (2020). Entangled Life: How Fungi Make Our Worlds, Change Our Minds & Shape Our Futures. Random House.

Shockey, K. K., & Shockey, C. (2014). Fermented Vegetables: Creative Recipes for Fermenting 64 Vegetables & Herbs in Krauts, Kimchis, Brined Pickles, Chutneys, Relishes & Pastes. Storey Publishing, LLC.

Siegel, N., & Schwarz, C. (2016). Mushrooms of the Redwood Coast: A Comprehensive Guide to the Fungi of Coastal Northern California. Ten Speed Press.

Singh, H. (2006). Mycoremediation: Fungal Bioremediation (1 edition). Wiley-Interscience.

Smith, A. H., & Thiers, H. D. (1970). The Boletes of Michigan. University of Michigan Press.

Šmogrovičová, D., Nádaský, P., Tandlich, R., Wilhelmi, B. S., & Cambray, G. (2012). Analytical and aroma profiles of Slovak and South African meads. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 30(3), 241–246.

Stamets, P. (1984). The Mushroom Cultivator: A Practical Guide to Growing Mushrooms at Home (1st ed). Agarikon Press.

Stamets, P. (1996). Psilocybin mushrooms of the World: An identification guide. Ten Speed Press.

Stamets, P. (2000). Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms (3rd ed). Ten Speed Press.

Stamets, P. (2005). Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World. Ten Speed Press.

Stamets, P., & Yao, C. D. W. (1999). MycoMedicinals: An Informational Treatise on Mushrooms. MycoMedia.

Staudter, K., & Krakowski, A. (2014). Vermont Beer: History of a Brewing Revolution. The History Press.

Steinkraus, K. (Ed.). (2004). Industrialization of Indigenous Fermented Foods (2nd ed.). CRC Press.

Stengler, M. (2005). The Health Benefits of Medicinal Mushrooms. Basic Health Publications.

Stephenson, S. L. (2010). The Kingdom Fungi: The Biology of Mushrooms, Molds, and Lichens. Timber Press.

Stevens, F. L. (2019). Fungi From Costa Rica and Panama. Forgotten Books.

Stewart, A. (2013). The drunken botanist: The plants that create the world’s great drinks. Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill.

Stuckler, K. (2013). How to Brew Honey Wine. Schiffer Publishing, Ltd.

Sturgeon, W. E. (2018). Appalachian Mushrooms: A Field Guide. Ohio University Press.

Sullivan, R. (n.d.). Medicinal Mushrooms: Their therapeutic properties and current medical usage with special emphasis on cancer treatments. Retrieved August 26, 2020, from https://www.academia.edu/305933/Medicinal_Mushrooms_Their_therapeutic_properties_and_current_medical_usage_with_special_emphasis_on_cancer_treatments

Sullivan, R., Smith, J. E., & Rowan, N. J. (2006). Medicinal Mushrooms and Cancer Therapy: Translating a traditional practice into Western medicine. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 49(2), 159–170. https://doi.org/10.1353/pbm.2006.0034

Swiegers, J. H., & Pretorius, I. S. (2005). Yeast Modulation of Wine Flavor. In Advances in Applied Microbiology (Vol. 57, pp. 131–175). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2164(05)57005-9

Swinnen, J. F. M. (2011). The Economics of Beer. Oxford University Press.

Tamang, J. P. (2009). Himalayan Fermented Foods: Microbiology, Nutrition, and Ethnic Values. CRC Press.

Trappe, J. M., Molina, R., Luoma, D. L., Cázares, E., Pilz, D., Smith, J. E., Castellano, M. A., Miller, S. L., & Trappe, M. J. (2009). Diversity, ecology, and conservation of truffle fungi in forests of the Pacific Northwest (PNW-GTR-772; p. PNW-GTR-772). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. https://doi.org/10.2737/PNW-GTR-772

Trappe, M., Evans, F., & Trappe, J. (2007). Field Guide to North American Truffles: Hunting, Identifying, and Enjoying the World’s Most Prized Fungi. Ten Speed Press.

Tripp, E. (2017). Field Guide to the Lichens of White Rocks: (1st edition). University Press of Colorado.

Tripp, E., & Lendemer, J. (2020). Field Guide to the Lichens of Great Smoky Mountains National Park (1st edition). Univ Tennessee Press.

Trudell;, A. E. B. A. R. B. W. C. R. S. A. (2013). Tricholomas of North America: A Mushroom Field Guide. University of Texas Press.

Tulloss, R. E., O’Dell, T. E., & Thorn, R. G. (1997). Protocols for an All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of Fungi in a Costa Rican Conservation Area (A. Y. Rossman, Ed.). Parkway Pub.

Turner, N. J., & Aderkas, P. von. (2009). The North American guide to common poisonous plants and mushrooms. Timber Press.

Turner, N. J., & Szczawinski, A. F. (1995). Common Poisonous Plants and Mushrooms of North America. Timber Press.

Umaña, L., & Sipman, H. (2002). Líquenes de Costa Rica / Costa Rica Lichens. Editorial INBio.

Umansky, J., Shih, R., & Katz, S. E. (2020). Koji Alchemy: Rediscovering the Magic of Mold-Based Fermentation. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Umolo, E., Stanley, H., & Immanuel, O. (2017). Mycoremediation of Spent Drilling Mud. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.

Underhill, J. E. (1982). Guide to Western Mushrooms. Hancock House.

Uzunov, B. A., & Stoyneva-Gärtner, M. P. (2015, November 11). Mushrooms and Lichens in Bulgarian Ethnomycology [Research Article]. Journal of Mycology; Hindawi. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/361053

Vargas, P., & Gulling, R. (1999). Making Wild Wines & Meads: 125 Unusual Recipes Using Herbs, Fruits, Flowers & More (Revised). Storey Publishing, LLC.

Vitt, D. H., Marsh, J. E., Bovey, R. B., & more, & 0. (2007). Mosses Lichens & Ferns of Northwest North America. Lone Pine Publishing.

Walewski, J. (2007). Lichens of the North Woods: A Field Guide to 111 Lichens. Kollath-Stensaas Publishing.

Walker, K., & Nesbitt, M. (2020). Just the Tonic: A Natural History of Tonic Water. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Ward, J., Kapadia, K., Brush, E., & Salhanick, S. D. (2013). Amatoxin Poisoning: Case Reports and Review of Current Therapies. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 44(1), 116–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.02.020

Wasson, R. G. (1972). Soma: Divine Mushroom of Immortality,. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Watkinson, S. C., Boddy, L., & Money, N. (2016). The Fungi (3rd ed.). Academic Press.

Webb, T., & Beaumont, S. (2016). The World Atlas of Beer, Revised & Expanded: The Essential Guide to the Beers of the World (Rev). Sterling Epicure.

Wells, K. (2004). Travels with Barley: A Journey Through Beer Culture in America. Free Press.

Wells, P. (2011). Simply Truffles: Recipes and Stories That Capture the Essence of the Black Diamond. William Morrow Cookbooks.

White, C., & Zainasheff, J. (2010). Yeast: The practical guide to beer fermentation. Brewers Publications.

Whitley, G. R. (1985). The medicinal and nutritional properties of Dahlia spp. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 14(1), 75–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(85)90031-5

Whitsitt, T. (2017). Fermentation on Wheels: Road Stories, Food Ramblings, and 50 Do-It-Yourself Recipes from Sauerkraut, Kombucha, and Yogurt to Miso, Tempeh, and Mead. Bloomsbury USA.

Winkler, D. (2011). A Field Guide to Edible Mushrooms of the Pacific Northwest (Pmplt edition). Harbour.

Winkler, D. (2012). A Field Guide to Edible Mushrooms of California (Pmplt edition). Harbour Publishing.

Wirth, V. (2010). Lichens of the Namib Desert: A guide to their identification. Hess, Klaus.

Woehrel, M. L., & Light, W. H. (2017). Mushrooms of the Georgia Piedmont and Southern Appalachians: A Reference. University of Georgia Press.

Wohlleben, P., & Flannery, T. (2016). The Hidden Life of Trees: What They Feel, How They Communicate—Discoveries from a Secret World. Greystone Books.

Wu, G., Zhao, K., Li, Y.-C., Zeng, N.-K., Feng, B., Halling, R. E., & Yang, Z. L. (2016). Four new genera of the fungal family Boletaceae. Fungal Diversity, 81(1), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-015-0322-0

Yatsunenko, T., Rey, F. E., Manary, M. J., Trehan, I., Dominguez-Bello, M. G., Contreras, M., Magris, M., Hidalgo, G., Baldassano, R. N., Anokhin, A. P., Heath, A. C., Warner, B., Reeder, J., Kuczynski, J., Caporaso, J. G., Lozupone, C. A., Lauber, C., Clemente, J. C., Knights, D., … Gordon, J. I. (2012). Human gut microbiome viewed across age and geography. Nature, 486(7402), 222–227. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11053

Yong, E. (2018). I Contain Multitudes: The Microbes Within Us and a Grander View of Life. Ecco.

Zhu, F., Qu, L., Fan, W., Qiao, M., Hao, H., & Wang, X. (2011). Assessment of heavy metals in some wild edible mushrooms collected from Yunnan Province, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 179(1), 191–199. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1728-5

Zimmerman, J. (2015). Make Mead Like a Viking: Traditional Techniques for Brewing Natural, Wild-Fermented, Honey-Based Wines and Beers. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Zimmerman, J. (2018). Brew Beer Like A Yeti. Chelsea Green Publishing.

comments powered by Disqus