November 25, 2014
Plant Talk 15: NeoTropical/Subtropical Plant Overview, Taxonomy, Ethnobotany, Places/Resources for Further Study.
Hello plant enthusiasts!
Well, the cold is in full affect here in the Southern Appalachian region and other temperate places of the world. The killing frost has taken away Tomatoes, Peppers, Marigolds, Nasturtiums, Basil and many other tender annuals as well as many of the leaves on the trees. The Fagaceae family i.e. Oak really shows off its tendency to retain its withered leaves this time of year. We have even had snow in multiple occasions though nothing like the record breaking amounts of 5-8 feet around Buffalo, NY i’ve been hearing about.
Something in me dies as well with the first killing frost. Thankfully this entity is waiting to be reborn again come the wonder of spring. i have a strong dislike for being cold but i do welcome the dormancy that such a condition brings. After going pretty non-stop since April i am excited for the opportunity to catch my breath, stock up on rest and do further botanical research. All of these things have proven difficult to grasp during the growing season. i hope in 2015 to have a few apprentices that can help me keep my head a bit more above water throughout the year of which the need is clear.
The class below focuses mostly on warm places where frost never comes. i probably would not want to live full time in a place like that. However, right now in the transition from warm to cold, thoughts of such places are very welcome.
A number of plants both cultivated and wild are available for harvest, though the cold sensitive plants have died. Cultivated ones include leeks, swiss chard, and lettuce. Wild edibles include onions, chickweed and greens from the Brassicaceae. What is still available for you?
Not too much is brave enough to bloom at this time of year but the native Witchazel (Hamamelis virginiana) is putting on quite a show around Asheville currently. Speaking of blooming. If shrubs like Azaleas, Rhododendrons, and Dog hobble in the Ericaceae and Lilacs, and Forsythia in the Oleaceae are pruned now then the flowers for next year will be sacrificed because they are already present and ready to go. This holds for many other perennial shrubs and trees as well.
Neo Tropical and Subtropical Botany
A photo album corresponding to this class can be seen at the link below…
Below is a treatment of tropical/subtropical botany and resources for the study therein. The focus is largely contained to the Americas including Hawaii as these are the places my travels have taken me personally. However, i have also visited many conservatories with tropical collections from around the world which may inform the discussion as well. What follows are descriptions of gardens that are available to visit for further exploration in the North/Central America and resources for the Caribbean. After that i have included small monographic treatments of mostly tropical families that are not described in Botany in a Day (T. Elpel, 2013; T. J. Elpel & Cook, 2006). Any feedback would be greatly appreciated. i have typically used one main resource in regards to edible leaves of the tropics (Martin, Ruberte, & Meitzner, 1998).
Excited to say that i have been accepted to present my research on the Ethnobotany of Costa Rica as well as my work as Executive Director of Plants and Healers International at the Second annual Medicines From the Edge Conference in Costa Rica. This research is informed by my only international trip with Frank Cook that occurred as part of the Guardians of Eden Retreat at Diamante Verde in 2007. Tenasi Rama and Tin Contreras were two other crucial instructors and together we have all crafted a plant list of over 300 species from Costa Rica replete with ethnobotanical uses. The cost of the conference and my stay will be covered due to my acceptance. However, i will still need to cover travel costs which i can really use any assistance possible to meet. If you are so inspired i would be ever so grateful!!!
Quite a few books cover tropical plants more generally (Barwick & Schans, 2004; Brücher, 2011; Craft, Riffle, & Zona, 2012; Fayaz, 2011; Hutton & Cassio, 2004; Llamas, 2003; Perrero, 1976; Rauch & Weissich, 2000; Staples, 2005; Utteridge & Bramley, 2014; Vandermeer, 2002; Warren & Tettoni, 2000, 2004). One in particular looks at the phytochemical potential of tropical plants (Downum, Romeo, & Stafford, 1993).
A lot of books have been written to cover weaving with coconut and other palms which tend to be pantropical (Cooke & Sampley, 2013; Goodloe, 1976; Morrison & H, 2000; Stevenson, 1970; Widess, 2006).
Ironic that i grew up in Florida from the age of 7 – 24 and yet only really got into plants in the last couple years before departure. Nonetheless, my youth in South Florida from 7 – 18 was immersed in plants of the region by default and i even had several profound plant experiences very early in my life there. Since becoming a focused botanist around 2001/2002 i have made numerous trips to Florida to visit friends and family. i have also had the good fortune to co-teach with Mycol Stevens from Brooker, FL in recent years. Mycol formerly worked for the state of Florida doing botanical surveys and ecological restoration work. He has greatly enhanced my awareness of subtropical botany more than anyone other than Frank Cook. Mycol hosts WOOFers at his farm if you are interested. He also founded an earth skills gathering that happens in the beginning of February every year. http://www.floridaearthskills.org/
i tend to depend on just a few books for plant identification in Florida (G. Nelson, 1998; Taylor, 1992; Wunderlin & Hansen, 2011). i am only currently aware of a few resources so far in regards to Florida Ethnobotany in general or certain Native American tribes on the peninsula in particular (D. F. Austin, 2004; Macmahon & Marquardt, 2004; Marquardt & Payne, 1992; Snow & Stans, 2001). The Florida Ethnobotany book by Dan Austin in particular is an amazing tome of extensive information although quite expensive to procure. The same author wrote a great little guide to plants of the southern Florida scrub community complete with ethnobotanical references (D. Austin, 1999). One other resource i picked up a couple of years ago as a discard from Warren Wilson College covers north Florida trees rather succinctly (Kurz & Godfrey, 1962). A number of books about Florida’s trees have been written as well (Kurz & Godfrey, 1962; Little, 1978; G. Nelson, 1998; Stebbins, 1999).
A few wild edible books specific to wild edibles for Florida have been written too (Deuerling & Lantz, 1993; Lantz, 2014). Green Deane is an incredible resource for wild edibles that grow in Florida and elsewhere.
A specific guide for orchids of Florida is available for folks interested in this fascinating plant group (Brown, 2002). A book about supporting wildlife in Florida with planting may also be of interest (Huegel, 1995).
Fairchild Botanical Gardens www.fairchildgarden.org
This is one of the best tropical botanical gardens in the world especially in regards to palms and cycads. Also the old home place of David Fairchild (1982) one of the greatest ethnobotanists of all time!
Kampong National Tropical Botanical Gardens
One of these gardens occurs in Florida and another on the island of Kauai in Hawai’i. Probably the two top tropical gardens on my list to visit.
Kanapaha Botanical Gardens www.kanapaha.org
Kanapaha is such a treat! One of the first botanical gardens i ever visited starting back in 1997/98. They have an extensive collection of fruits that will grow in the area. Many gorgeous aesthetic elements are featured as well. Ethnobotanical information is included on the signs around the medicinal herb garden. Some of the best such signs i have ever witnessed in visiting over 100 botanical gardens!
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens www.selby.org
This garden right on the Gulf is exceptional especially for its collection of Orchids, Banyan trees and frogs. Selby has the most diverse collection of bromeliads in the world and the collection in total has plants from 6,000 species in 1,200 genera from 214 plant families! They have also published a great comprehensive book about orchid genera (Alrich & Higgins, 2008).
University of South Florida Botanical Gardens www.cas.usf.edu/garden
i have been a member of this garden for years due to their very affordable rates. This membership gives me free entry and other benefits to most of the major botanical gardens of the country! The citrus and orchid collections are particularly engaging.
Ford Edison Estate www.edisonfordwinterestates.org
This is a legendary estate that played host to the families of both Thomas Edison and Henry Ford. Numerous old trees provide inspiration including the biggest Bayan (Ficus benghalensis) in the continental United States! It was only planted in 1925 from a 4ft tree! A fascinating museum is part of the property as well.
Naples Botanical Gardens www.naplesgarden.org
This is a compact garden that is action packed and perfect for a crash course tutorial in the most important tropical plants of the world. They also have a nice butterfly garden as well.
Edible Fruit and Spice Park www.fruitandspicepark.org
The Fruit and Spice Park is an incredible resource and must see stop for lovers of tropical fruit. What follows is a synopsis from a book written by soon retiring director Chris Rollins (Rollins, 2006). Today the park contains 35 acres. It is surrounded by thousands of acres of commercial tropical agriculture. Over 27,000 visitors a year come to view the gardens and participate in various festivals. The park features more than 500 varieties of exotic fruits, herbs, spices, and nuts from around the world. 80 varieties of bananas, 40 varieties of grapes, 80+ varieties of mangoes, over 30 varieties of avocadoes and 15 varieties of jackfruit are present!!! Visitors can sample fallen fruit but cannot pick from the trees. Arrangements can be made to collect seeds and cuttings. Classes, workshops, and tours are conducted year round by park staff. A number of festivals occur annually at the park. These include one that celebrates the areas agricultural heritage, an Asian culture festival, and an orchid festival.
McKee Botanical Gardens www.mckeegarden.org
i was pleased to visit the McKee Botanical Gardens during a glass exhibit. This is more a pretty place garden than one for hard core botanizing. In that regard it is very engaging, relaxing and inspiring for sure.
Morikami Japanese Garden www.morikami.org
One of the first formal gardens i ever visited. It is an elegant nature respite amongst the intensity of SE Florida.
Key West Tropical Forest and Botanical Gardens www.kwbgs.org
This garden was founded in 1934 and has undergone various states of upkeep and maintenance through its history. The diversity is impressive and you will probably see many plants here that occur nowhere else in the U.S. Great signage and an extensive guide as well (LaGotta & Pimm, 2011).
Florida Gulf Coast University http://fgcufoodforest.weebly.com/
This academic institution right down the road from where my dad lives has recently installed a food forest. I have yet to visit but hope to check it out when I am down visiting my family this Christmas
Education Concerns For Hunger Organization (ECHO) http://echonet.org/
ECHO is an incredibly inspiring place on so many levels. The gardens alone span
Close to 40 acres and have been developed for close to 40 years. They read like a who’s who of tropical fruit crops with very good signage. However, ECHO also has a special focus on appropriate technology as well. They are a Christian organization that works with missionaries, peace corps folks and aid workers all over the world through a seed bank and prolific amounts of technical bulletins. Great book store, fruit market, nursery and tours led by friendly and informative docents…If you are ever in the area go, go, go! Below are links to a couple photo albums.
A manual to the plants of Hawaii has been developed (Wagner, Herbst, & Sohmer, 1999). A flora is also available online. Another great online resource from Starr Environmental contains images for many sections of Hawaiian biota including plants, insects, birds, mushrooms, etc.
A number of books focus on the native plants of Hawaii of which many are endemic (Bohm, 2009; Bornhorst, 2005; Culliney & Koebele, 1999; Fahs, 2006; Merwin, Wilcove, Middleton, & Liittschwager, 2003). One in particular is a rather exhaustive treatise on every single species (Lilleeng-Rosenberger, 2005)! A couple books also explore the ferns of Hawaii of which the one by Palmer (2008) is especially comprehensive and up to date (Valier, 1995). An online resource for Hawaiian native plants is available through UH Manoa as well.
It may be helpful to look at the history, evolution and ecology of Hawaii to put these plants in context (Ziegler, 2002). One book looks at Hawaiian wetland ecology including plants and other biota specifically (Erickson & Puttock, 2006).
Angela Kay Kepler is a prolific author of books on Hawaiian plants. Some are for specific plant groups like trees and proteas and bananas (A. K. Kepler, 1990, 1996; A. K. Kepler & Rust, 2011). Others are more general wildflower guides that cover the heritage plants of Hawaii (A. Kepler, 2004; A. K. Kepler, 1995, 1998; A. K. Kepler & Mau, 1989).
Some great books address the traditional healing practices of Hawaii (Abbott, 1992; Gutmanis, 1976, 1995; Krauss, 2001b). Another books addresses more broad ethnobotanical aspects of the Hawaiian flora (Krauss, 2001a). One looks at the healing practices of Polynesia in general (Whistler, 1994). Another looks at Polynesian basket making (Arbeit, 1990). One also covers plants of Tropical Pacific islands more generally (Mueller-Dombois & Fosberg, 1997).
Quite a few books have been written that cover the making of traditional Lei’s from Hawaii (Bird & Bird, 1987; Heckman, 2001; L. Ide, 2001; L. S. Ide, 2000, 2002; Shimizu-ide, 2008).
i am very appreciative for the guide book Hawaii’s Botanical Gardens by Kevin Whitton (2009) for compact information and insights to gardens i might not have found otherwise. Hawaii is blessed with a rich catalogue of affordable high quality plant guides. All of the gardens described below are contained on the Big Island where i was blessed to visit for 10 days four years ago. i give great thanks to my friends Sand, Ian, and Sol on the Kona side and Michael, Christy, Jai and Robin on the Hilo side for such great places to stay when my travels were under way!
Often when i travel alone i tend to botanize, look at art and pray…Noticing that many types of life might be considered art by the right lens. Here at my first official prayer stop i also took note of some common Hawaiian landscape plants. It was nice to meet and know the name of the prevalent Snow Bush (Breynia disticha var. roseo- picta) Euphorbiaceae. i also saw what was probably the prolific Bay Biscayne Creeping Oxeye (Sphagneticola trilobata syn Wedelia trilobata) Asteraceae.
Sadie Seymour Botanical Gardens www.kealakowaa.org
This small garden is effectively a nice series of “rooms” containing plants from throughout the tropical world. As part of a community center it provides a welcome respite from the bustling traffic nearby.
The palm collection in particular is rather nice. However, they really have a sampling of global tropical plants laid out in a very tasteful and aesthetically pleasing manner. Notable other plants included:
Australian Grass Tree (Xanthorrhoea arborea) Xanthorrhoeaceae
Pua Keni Keni (Fragraea berteroana) Loganiaceae
Pony Tail Palm (Nolina recurvata) Agavaceae
i definitely had to look out for bugs like spiders and a multitude of flyers as well.
Amy B. H. Greenwell Ethnobotanical Garden
This is one of the best gardens for ethnobotanical signage that i have ever been to!!! A kid’s educational program consisting of planting natives, weeding invasives and making tropical fruit smoothies was happening concurrent with my visit. They have published a great book covering plants of the garden and the legacy of a most extraordinary woman (Greenwell, Lincoln, & Van Dyke, 2009). The garden had a particularly nice selection of Hala (Pandanus tectorius) Pandanaceae The wood of the plant can be used to make textile items while part of the fruits are edible and they can also be used as paintbrushes (P. Wood, 2010b). A number of references cover the traditional weaving techniques using Hala (Bird, Goldsberry, & Bird, 1982; Keawe, MacDowell, & Dewurst, 2014; Widess, 2011). Through the affiliated Bishop Museum three books have been published on native Hawaiian crafts (Buck & Hiroa, 1957a, 1957b, 1957c). This garden also maintains an ethnobotanical database online.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden www.htbg.com
This garden has a special location right by the sea. They have many stunning exotic trees including the Rose of Venezuela (Brownea coccinea) in the Fabaceae. The garden also contains huge ferns like the Mule’s Foot (Angiopteris evecta) and ornamental shrubs like the Yellow Shrimp Plant (Pachystachys lutea) in the Acanthaceae. This is a good place to tease apart plants in the Ginger order (Zingiberales). The sweet locale also has a nice waterfall and book describing the gardens and their development (Anderson, 1994).
i feel very fortunate to have visited Kalani which is the workplace of my dear friend from my time at the Omega Institute in 1998/99. While at Kalani i went on an awesome plant walk with the head gardener Barcus and also got to practice some Dutch with an older couple from the Netherlands. Barcus demonstrated how one can write on the leaves of the Autograph Plant (Clusia rosea) Clusiaceae. He also regaled us with traditional folklore and details from the nice aquaponics set up established to grow fish and plants in a continuous system. Kalani has a published map containing plant locations and descriptions. It is an incredible place for many reasons. Established over 35 years ago, they host numerous types of workshops, while serving as a model of living in community amongst a multitude of amenities. i probably took note of at least 30 interesting plants at this location alone.
Nani Mau Gardens www.nanimaugardens.com
Nani Mau is more of a pretty place garden with lots of orchids and tourists riding trams. It also has a really interesting fruit selection and minimal signage. If you walk rather than ride you may have the place mostly to yourself. The head gardener Paul was very friendly and informative.
Liliuokalani is a nice Japanese style garden dedicated to the sugarcane workers who came over from Japan to work the fields. It is more a place to hang out relax or stroll through. Not too much diversity of planting but i did take notice of the stunning Mickey Mouse Plant (Ochna thomasiana syn Ochna kirkii) Ochnaceae. The Ochnaceae is a fascinating pan tropical family that i will endeavor to serve further as time permits.
Lava Tree State Park
Here i took note and pictures of a plant that looks like the Bamboo Orchid (Arundina graminifolia) as well as huge trees my friends called Mimosa. A particularly prolific fern probably the Pacific False Staghorn (Dicranopteris sp.) also caught my eye. The fern is not native to Hawaii and quickly invades disturbed areas (Pratt, 1998). Plant and animal invasiveness in Hawaii is a real big challenge to maintaining many endemic plants that grow nowhere else in the world (Juvik, Delay, Merlin, & Castillo, 2008; Messing & Wright, 2006; Motooka, 2003; Staples & Cowie, 2001). A number of online resources for invasive plants are available through the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR) UH Manoa, USDA, Early Detection Distribution and Mapping System (EDDMaps), Hawaii Invasive Species Council (HISC) Hawaii Invasive Species. Despite the significant challenges that Hawaiian ecosystems face from disturbance there is potential for restoration (Cabin, 2013).
Hawaiian Volcanoes National Park http://www.nps.gov/havo/index.htm
Unfortunately, i did not get to visit while in Pahoa which is currently be eaten by lava from here. However, i am aware of a couple great resources for the study of life present there (C. Smith, 1988; Stone & Pratt, 1995).
One evening i went to a Kava Bar in Hilo and saw the incredible band Medicine for the People www.medicine4thepeople.org. Kava (Piper methysticum) Piperaceae is used in a traditional Polynesian beverage (Greenwood-Robinson, 1999; Kilham, 1996; Lebot, Merlin, & Lindstrom, 1997; McNally & Cass, 1998; Reichert, 1997; Sahelian, 1998; Walji, 1997). The effects tend to bring on a bit of numbness and general sense of wellbeing. Moderation in usage is recommended due to potential harmful effects. It has never been a beverage of choice for me. However, i enjoyed experiencing Kava in a Pacific Island context at an outdoor show on a balmy evening in mid-December.
The University of Hawaii at Manoa is also the host to one of the only full-fledged Ethnobotany programs in the country.
In 2007 i was fortunate to visit Central America for 7 weeks. i flew into Costa Rica and participated in a plant symposium with Frank Cook and others mentioned above and below over the course of the first two weeks. i then travelled by bus through other parts of the country before continuing through Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala. Descriptions of gardens below are from that trip.
Costa Rica is sooooo lucky to have several non-profits and the government itself to publish copious amounts of up to date literary resources on most of the various special plant groups represented there. Many of these resources are both in Spanish and English which is yet another boon (Acevedo, Bustamante, Paniagua, & Chaves, 2002; Estrada & Rodríguez, 2009; Hammel, 2005; Kappelle & Horn, 2005)
Costa Rica is home to many reserves and several of these have publications related to the plants within (Arce, 2005; Céspedes & Lindquist, 2007; Crow, 2002; González, 2005; Harmon, 2004; Kappelle, Castro, Acevedo, González, & Monge, 2003; Polini, 2008; Vindas, 2003). Some great books address conservation in Costa Rica and threatened species (Madrigal, 1993; Obando & Herrera, 2010; Southgate, 1998). Illegal palm (Geonoma edulis) harvest in National Parks is a particular problem (Sylvester & Avalos, 2009).
Many resources address the woody plants across the country as well (Condit, Pérez, & Daguerre, 2010; Holdridge, 1997; Poveda, Jiménez, & Zamora, 2011; Sanchez-Vindas, Poveda, & Arnason, 2005; Valerio, 2004; Zamora, Jimenez, & Poveda, 2004). One book in particular looks at the biodiversity of Oaks in tropical areas of America more generally (Kappelle, 2008). One resource covers both vernacular and scientific names but is only in Spanish (Fournier Origgi & García D., 1998).
A number of resources address other specific plant groups. Morales (2000) reviews bromeliads. Lichens get a couple books (Purvis, 2000; Umaña & Sipman, 2002). The Gesneriaceae, which really stood out during my visit is treated of its own accord as well (Haehner, 2006).
A few books look at the history and tradition of Costa Rican naturalists and herbalism (Laurito, Sanchez-Vindas, & Manfredi Abarca, 2005; Navas, 2006; Quirós, 2006; Skutch, 2000). i found one paper looking at the value of ethnomedical literature surveys for finding antifungal properties in Costa Rica and six other Latin American countries across over one hundred different plants (Svetaz et al., 2010).
Here is an excerpt from a travelougue of my trip through Central America in 2007. It conveys a bit of the interesting nature of a very special place in the world…i was privileged to spend a week there studying plants with Frank Cook, Tenasi Rama, Tin Contreras and various other incredible plant teachers.
On Monday i left the cave and the cathedral de la piedra (Cathedral of stone) at about 3:30 in the morning to catch the 6 a.m. bus from Las Tumbas to San Isidro. i spent the two days prior with an awesome couple who were the current caretakers Cannon and Akissi. Cannon and i had former connections from the Hostel in the Forest of all places! Akkisi was born in Africa but her parents were French and had ties to Greece. She had spent the holidays in Europe with Cannon where it was apparently not cold yet even in the Alps! That is a little snapshot of the type of incredible people that come through the Cathedral de la Piedra. In the scant time i was there other visitors included; a bunch of other Frenchmen, a couple scouting out a retreat space for their Unitarian Universalist church out of Tulsa Oklahoma, U.S. expats who live in Platanillo, the owner Jon Chapman who has donated the land for the greater good and has a number of amazing children with a Tica (Costa Rican native) lady, and a number of the Tico laborers up for a Sunday outing with the family. This even though the hike is probably as steep as any that most of you and i have ever done! It legendarily has been known to take anywhere from from 1 hour to 2 days. A multitude of beautiful waterfalls including the highest one in the country certainly add to the attraction. To top it off Frank Cook and i assisted Tenasi Rama in generating a plant list for the land that is close to 300 species replete with numerous ethnobotanical uses both researched and first hand! This list is a great resource for anyone working in Central America and i am in the process of talking with Tenasi about making this list as well as several other co-created works on Costa Rican flora more available.
Wilson Botanical Gardens, San Vito www.ots.ac.cr
These fabulous gardens are run by the Organization for Tropical studies.
i spent two fabulous days there touring around first with a Tica environmental education graduate and then by myself. The gardens are notable for several big collections of tropical plant groups including Heliconias, Bromeliads, Marantas (you all have seen
them in the house or the mall) and especially Palms. They have the second biggest
palm collection in the world after the Fairchild Tropical Gardens in Miami!
Close to 700 palm species alone and apparently near 7000 plant species in total inhabit this space. A pleasant surprise besides the cool and abundant plants was one of the neatest tropical plant libraries i have ever been privileged to spend time in! Many of you know how i adore books, and i spent copious amounts of time referencing from their collection and noting which titles i might like to add to mine.
Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza (CATIE) or The Center for Tropical Investigation and Learning. www.catie.ac.cr
The CATIE property covers 2,655 acres and houses over 400 species of plants from around the world! The main focus is to maintain the genetic diversity of plants crucial to Central American agriculture. This includes 2,500 varieties of Coffee (Coffea spp.) and 700 varieties of Chocolate (Theobroma cacao) alone!!! They also have a very neat garden of useful plants from around the world with placards explaining their beneficial qualities. In addition to the gardens CATIE runs a full scale University with graduate programs for people from many different places. The program includes faculty representing 13 different countries. They also have a 400,000 volume library and many publications! i could see possibly spending some time there and/or the Organization for Tropical Studies somewhere in the future si Dios quiere (God willing).
Lankester Gardens in Cartago Paraiso www.jbl.ucr.ac.cr/php/inicio/inicio.php
The garden was quite a bit down a non-descript road with no prior signage that i could see. With persistence and a few kilometers of walking carrying my pack i was able to find its location. Once there i realized it was well worth the effort. The desk attendant spoke excellent English as well as German and we had a rather nice dialogue in a mixture of languages. This garden also had the nicest gift shop i had seen! i ended up getting a few knickknacks and a couple of the best botany books i had found in the country. One book was for the most common weeds and their uses and another was the most succinct book for understanding the 120 tree families of Costa Rica (Laurito et al., 2005; Sanchez-Vindas et al., 2005). We used both of these books extensively during our two week plant study through Diamante Verde. Other books that we used as well as others i have found since are numerous (Gargiullo, Magnuson, & Kimball, 2008; Kappelle & Horn, 2005; Lellinger, 1989; Zuchowski, 2007).
The misty rain that had persisted throughout the morning let up just as i was done checking out the gift shop and ready to explore. The 27 acres of the Lankester garden are home to around 3000 species of plants. The overwhelming majority consists of an amazing orchid collection containing about 1000 different species and more than 7,000 individuals. This was the place that i finally found inspiration to go deeper into orchid study. Costa Rica has a number of guides for understanding orchid diversity (Dressler, 1994; Morales, 2009a, 2009b, 2009c, 2009d, 2009e). It was very nice to have everything meticulously labeled. i left there with an appreciation of several Orchid groups that call to me in particular especially slipper orchids. Besides Orchids the garden focuses on a few other plant families including Palms (Arecaceae), Bamboos (Poaceae), Bromeliads (Bromeliaceae), Heliconias (Heliconiaceae), Cycads (Cycadaceae), Cacti (Cactaceae), and Ferns. i am not particularly knowledgeable of any of these families but still found their collections rather impressive and a challenge for further study. The garden at that time needed to work quite a bit on their signage however to facilitate such a task.
Ark Herb Farm www.arkherbfarm.com
i traveled from CATIE to Heredia near San Jose to stay with my new friend Tin. He was one of the main teachers at the plant symposium i attended. i explored this repository of hundreds of plants with him and worked to compile the additions we made to the Diamante Verde plant list including more than 50 new species. My time at the Ark herb farm seemed like a bit of a warp zone. i had already pretty much decided to skip Arenal and Tabacon Hot Springs mostly due to my book purchases at Lankester. This was a classic choice for me. i took the longer lasting joy of books over the short term joy of shi shi hot springs and the chance to see an active volcano glowing orange with lava. i partially rationalized that a volcano viewing is never guaranteed and the books are rather fabulous resources in many ways. After just a little time at Ark it became apparent that beyond money i would also rather spend the time alloted to Tabacon/Arenal deepening my connection with this rather special family at a particularly dynamic time of all our lives. This is the place where i wrote my rather extended reflection of the Diamante symposium. i also reviewed Tin´s large collection of the vast book resources available about Costa Rican Flora.
Ark is also home to over 300 species of medicinal and culinary plants from around the world. These are represented in large beds for commercial cultivation as well as within a nicely labeled and layed out ethnobotanical garden. The view of the central valley below is also rather stunning, especially from the tree house.
Monte Verde, Orchid Botanical Gardens www.monteverde-online.com
The next day i went to this sweet little Orchid garden which was a pleasant surprise amongst the copious tourists of this famous locale. The attendant/guide was a gal named Karmen from Eugene, Oregon who had spent quite a bit of time in C.R. and also had a great bit of knowledge about plants. Karmen was studying with Willow Zuchowski author of the amazing tome Tropical Plants of Costa Rica (2007). She very adeptly helped me hone my budding (smile) interest in orchids to a much finer point. i spent the balance of the day in further discussion and exploration of the orchid books that they had available. In a relatively small space they had over 450 species of orchids almost all native to Costa Rica. That is about 1/3 of the total native species to the country! To top it off over 100 of these species. were blooming. However, i must say that you really need a magnifying glass to appreciate many of them! A multitude of book resources are available for further study of Costa Rican orchids (Morales, 2006, 2009a, 2009b, 2009c, 2009d, 2009e). One book even covers the bees that pollinate the orchids (Roubik & Hanson, 2004).
The Isla de Ometepe on the huge Lago (Lake) de Nicaragua is certainly one of the most stunning places i have ever been! Unfortunately, i have only found very few resources for Nicaraguan botany specifically (Gómez & Arbeláez, 2009; Seymour, 2012; Stevens, Ulloa, Pool, & Montiel, 2001). However, many educational programs including ethnobotanical field schools and herbalist trainings have occurred or continue to occur there i.e. through the Maderas Rainforest Conservancy and Finca Bona Fide. Sam Coffman, a former green beret, lead trips to the Caribbean side of Nicaragua where he sets up a clinic to help treat mostly indigenous folks who live far away from health services.
Finca Magdelena http://www.fincamagdalena.com/
i had already decided that i was being called to hike the "smaller" of the two volcanos that inhabit the Isla de Ometepe. Maderas is close to 4000 ft tall. Conception the larger of the two is an additional 600 ft taller and still active. i quickly determined that it was necessary to reach Finca Magdalena at the foot of Maderas that day if i were to be able to climb the following morning. After a rather extensive bus trip and a great ride/conversation with a local Nica (Nicaraguan) family i reached the trail to Magdalena. Another twenty minutes of hiking and i reached this amazing oasis. Finca Magdelena is a cooperative farm that owns hundreds of acres on this island. They produce fair trade organic shade grown coffee, chocolate, bananas, etc. They also run a rather popular hostel frequented by people from all over the world. The rooms ranged from $2.50 shared to $6 private per night! A whole plate of yummy typical food goes for $1.25 and liters of beer are $1.50! The finca also has a rather extensive collection of the petroglyphs that are another hallmark of the Ometepe experience.
Lancetilla Botanical Gardens, Tela
Lancetilla was started in 1926 by the United Fruit Company owners of the Chiquita banana brand. The garden in total comprises 1680 hectares (4000 plus acres). 78 hectares are dedicated to an arboretum and 321 hectares to experimental plants and endangered species. The rest is a biological reserve. The garden features fruit trees from every continent. This was the place that almost every type of tropical fruit you can imagine was trialed to see its appropriateness for cultivation in Central America. It was inspiring to see an arboretum of such mature specimens. Eighty years in the tropics is probably similar to twice or three times that much in the north. The garden was also rather vacant and very peaceful. The signage was for the most part superb though i realized i have a lot more studying to do to even begin to appreciate the diversity represented. Trees can be a lot harder to get a handle on than smaller plants especially with so many diverse places from all over the world represented. Luckily the visitor center did have a tree guide available to also help the cause (C. Nelson & Andino, n.d.).
Guatemala National Botanical Gardens
i really wanted to visit the Guatemala National Botanical Gardens. Luckily the gardens are located in a rather chill part of the capital city. i was very glad for my decision. Initially, i had decided to limit my time to two hours. However, i was able to secure a great plant list and the signage was also good. Unfortunately funds were low for this project so the plant list though good was 20 years old and instead of removing broken trees they just had whole sections roped off citing danger. The greenhouse was also rather run down. Nonetheless, the established plantings were a very interesting mix of Northern temperate and Subtropical. Just as i was about to leave to catch a taxi to the bus stop the most challenging part of my trip began. My bowels broke loose!!!
i have yet to visit Belize but i do have one great resource from there in my library (Balick, Nee, & Atha, 2000). However, many more resources for plant study in Belize sometimes overlapping with the Mayan sections of Mexico have been produced (Arvigo, 1995; Arvigo & Balick, 1993; Arvigo & Epstein, 2001; Garcia, Sierra, Balam, & Balam, 1999; Rietsema & Beveridge, 2009). A guide has been written that treats the orchids of both Belize and Guatemala as well (Ames & Correll, 2012).
So far i have found one book about medicinal plants in Panama (Chizmar, Lu, & Correa, 2009). A relatively modern flora is available for the country as well as a discussion on the natural history (D’Arcy, 1985, 1987). A flora for Barro Colorado island close to Panama city has been developed as well (Croat, 1978). However, i hope to visit here for a bit during my trip in March and will hopefully uncover some more.
A few resources address the plants of Caribbean more generally (Ackerman, 2014; Bourne, Lennox, & Seddon, 1988; Lennox & Seddon, 1978; Liogier & Martorell, 1999; Littler, Littler, Bucher, & Norris, 1989; Scurlock, 1996; Seddon & Lennox, 1980; Thomas, 2009). A cross cultural dictionary covering terms regarding flora has been developed as well (Allsopp, 2003).
The Bahamas is the only place in the Caribbean that i have been able to visit so far in my life. That visit also occurred when i was a young boy accompanying my father and consisted of mostly hanging around golf courses and hotels in Freeport. Nonetheless, the place made a big impression on me and i still have a conch shell at my Dad’s house from that time. i have come across a couple wild flower guides for the area (Lennox & Seddon, 1978; K. M. Wood, 2003). A few good references have been written about the herbal practices of the Bahamas which is known as “Bush Medicine” both there and other places in the Caribbean (Higgs, 1978; McCormack, Maier, & Wallens, 2011; M. H.- Smith, 2005; Wilmanowicz, 2011). One of the foremost naturalists of the 18th century also wrote a tome considering both the plants and other biota of the Bahamas as well as much of the southeastern United States (Catesby & Kislak, 1771).
One book i have found covers Afro-Cuban herbalism (Quiros-Moran, 2009). One book covers the trees of Cuba specifically (Leiva, 2007) Another covers the trees of Cuba, other islands and south Florida (Scurlock, 1996). Cuba is also well known for its sustainable agriculture (Koont, 2011).
Dominica is an island in the Caribbean similar to the role Costa Rica plays for Central America. Ecotourism is big. Some of the native Carib traditions live on there as well. Frank Cook visited some mutual friends here during his travels and i hope to follow in his footsteps someday. Much ethnobotanical work has been done down there (M. Quinlan, 2010; Marsha Bogar Quinlan, 2000; Marsha B. Quinlan & Quinlan, 2007; Marsha B Quinlan, Quinlan, & Nolan, 2002; M. B. Quinlan & Quinlan, 2006; R. J. Quinlan, 2005; R. J. Quinlan & Flinn, 2005).
The work of Wade Davis (1985) is seminal in regards to ethnobotany in general and certainly Haiti in particular. ECHO mentioned above in the Florida section has an ongoing mission in Haiti and probably has some publications pursuant to that. I have not been able to find many other resources yet though. Do you know of any? Can you find some for me…us?
A friend and colleague of mine Summer Ragosta nee Austin has worked extensively in Jamaica studying ethnobotany first as a Peace Corps worker and then as a student at the University of Hawaii Manoa (S. Austin & Thomas, 2009). Many other resources are available to study Jamaican ethnobotany and medicinal practices specifically (Ayre, 2002; Cho, 1976; Harris, 2010; Henry, 2002; Higman, 2008; Irizarry, 2012; Payne-Jackson & Alleyne, 2004; Robertson, 1988).
i have found one book so far covering trees from a National Forest (Mowbray, 2012). An orchid flora was developed for here and the Virgin Islands (Ackerman, 1995). A flora has been developed for Puerto Rico and its surrounds as well (Liogier & Martorell, 1999). One book that is only in Spanish covers tree fruits of the island (Rivero & Brunner, 2006).
Major Plants of the Tropics
Below are some of the major plants that are everywhere in Hawaii in particular and hard to miss
Bauhinia (Bauhinia) Fabaceae
African Tulip Tree (Spathodea campanulata) Bignoniaceae
Plumeria (Plumeria spp.) Apocynaceae
Plumbago (Plumbago) Plumbaginaceae
Kukui/Candelnut (Aleurites moluccana) Sapindaceae
Firecracker plant (Russelia equisetiformis) Plantaginaceae
Bouganvilla (Bougainvillea) Nycaginaceae
Reina de La Noche (Brugmansia) Solanaceae
Octopus Tree (Schefflera actinophylla) Araliaceae
Ti Plant (Cordyline fruticosa) is a major plant of Polynesia brought to Hawaii with the Tahitian or Marquesan colonizers. Most guide books put it in the Agavaceae. However, Laxmanniaceae is another family sometimes used and certain placement is still in question.
i got to sample an incredible array of fruits while visiting Hawaii especially.
Abiu (Pouteria caimito) Sapotaceae
Longan (Dimocarpus longan) Sapindaceae
Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Rubiaceae
Avocados (Persea spp.) Lauraceae
Papaya (Carica papaya) Caricaceae
Breadfruit/Ulu (Artocarpus altilis) Moraceae
Passionfruit/Liliko’i (Passiflora spp.) Passifloraceae
Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Malvaceae
Persimmon (Diospyros) Ebenaceae
Citrus (Citrus spp.) Rutaceae
Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) Sapindaceae
Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Areceae
Soursop (Annona muricata) Annonaceae
Mac Nuts (Macadamia integrifolia) Proteaceae
Surinam Cherries (Eugenia uniflora) Myrtaceae
Other Interesting Plants
i ran into a number of other interesting plants worth mentioning during my Hawaiian travels
Koa (Acacia koa) Fabaceae is a special endemic tree of Hawaii. In the photo album on Facebook you can see a number of pictures of the plant as well as signs with ethnobotanical uses. The Crown Flower (Calotropis gigantea) Asclepidaceae is a beach plant with rather pretty flowers.
While visiting a charter school holiday fair i noticed a neat wreath made out of Christmas Berry (Schinus sp.) Anacardiaceae and what i think what was probably Pukiawe (Styphelia tameiameiae) formerly Empacridaceae but now Ericaceae. The first plant is a terrible and to some a toxic exotic invasive and the other a rather rare indigenous plant of Polynesia.
Golden Dew Drop (Duranta erecta syn Duranta repens) Verbenaceae is a conspicuous plant i noticed throughout my travels on the Big Island. The pretty purple flowers and distinctive orange fruit make identification easy. For the second time in my life i got to see the Jade Vine (Strongylodon sp.) Fabaceae. The first time was in a greenhouse in a cold Dutch spring. It was nice to see it outside growing naturally in a tree.
i feel especially privileged to have met the Silversword/’Ahinahina (Argyroxiphium sandwicense) Asteraceae. This is an endemic genus with several species in Hawaii all of them rare. The Silversword was almost extinguished by feral animals but is now protected and making a comeback (P. Wood, 2010a). This plant group represents an excellent example of island speciation.
i also noticed what looked like quite a bit of Dodder (Cuscuta) taking over parts of Kona area but it may also have been the similar (Cassytha filiformis) Lauraceae as i only got a look from afar. Kauna’oa (Cuscuta sandwichiana) is used as the typical lei for Lanai (Hall, 2008).
‘Ohi’a lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) Fabaceae is another endemic plant to Hawai’i. A famous honey comes from this lava field colonizer from which i crafted a delicious mead.
Tropical Families not Covered by Elpel
i have taken to including the current orders that families are ascribed to as defined by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II (APG II) in the 2003 issue of Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 141(4), 399-436 and presented in four sources (Heywood, Brummitt, Culham, & Seberg, 2007; Judd, Campbell, Kellog, Stevens, & Donahue, 2008; Llamas, 2003; Spears, 2006). These are the fundamental sources for the stated taxonomy below!
The Zingiberales is a very important order for food and ornament in the tropics. It can be hard to determine members even to family at times. Some of the major members are teased apart below. One book addresses the cultivation of hardy members within the order (Branney, 2005).
Cannanaceae / Canna Lily Family / Zingiberales
The Canna Lily (Canna indica syn Canna edulis) is one of the classic tropical looking plants that grows well in cool climates (Roth & Schrader, 2000). A starch similar to Arrowroot (Maranta sp.) can be obtained from the rootstock (Couplan, 1998). Beyond that i am not too familiar with other uses of this family.
Heliconiaceae / Heliconia Family / Zingiberales
These plants look a lot like bananas vegetatively. However, many Heliconias have very distinctive an alluring inflorescences and a couple book address how to cultivate them (Berry & Kress, 1991; Brunner, 2013). Traveler’s Palm (Ravenala madagascariensis) is a stunning landscape ornamental grown in Hawaii and elsewhere in tropical locales.
Marantaceae / Arrowroot Family / Zingiberales
Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) is probably the most famous plant in this family. It has an unpalatable outer skin that must be removed and the raw root is acrid as well (Couplan, 1998). Plants from the Marantaceae are sometimes used ornamentally indoors. The leaves tend to have distinctive striping patterns with a characteristic purple underside to the leaf. They are sometimes called prayer plants.
Muscaceae / Banana Family / Zingiberales
This family is responsible for one of the most popular fruits on the planet Musa ×paradisiaca. The modern cultivated banana does not even produce viable seeds and it must be reproduced vegetatively! Luckily this propagation is very easy to do. In the tropics you will notice that many different types of bananas exist and that bananas ripe off the plant are far superior to anything from the grocery store where they have been shipped after being picked green. Bananas are also often coated in toxic pesticides which have deleterious effects on harvesters (Ransom, 2001). Fairtrade organic Bananas are a good way to vote with your money and your mouth for a more sustainable global agricultural system (Ericson, 2006). Abaca (Musa textilis) is a textile plant from the genus.
Strelitziaceae / Bird of Paradise Family / Zingiberales
Birds of Paradise (Strelitzia spp.) always remind me to be thankful when i see them during travel. True to their name, i am usually in paradise every time i witness these growing. i have had the good fortune to catch the white version a couple of times Strelitzia alba.
Zingiberaceae / Ginger Family / Zingberales
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is probably one of the most important food as medicine plants in the world! Bring this into your life if you have not already. It is an overall health supportive while improving digestion specifically. Very different than the temperate plant in the US and elsewhere called `Wild Ginger` (Asarum spp.) Aristolochiaceae which has toxic compounds! Tropical Ginger has great flavor and is featured prominently in a multitude of iconic foods. Tumeric (Curcuma longa) is well known for its anti-imflammatory effects and also imparting the color yellows to curries and mustard. A type of Arrowroot is made from (C. angustifolia) and perfume extracted from Zedoary (C. zedoaria) (Heywood et al., 2007). Folks in Asheville have been cultivating ginger and turmeric as annuals lately to some good effect.
i think of Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) mostly as something to add to curry and chai, however, it is medicinal as well and goes good in coffee too. Galangal (Alpinia galanga) is a lesser known member of the family that is used medicinally in Asia. The Ginger family hosts a number of ornamentals as well including Red Ginger (A. purpurata), Shell Ginger (A. zerumbet), Ginger Lily (Hedychium coronarium) and Roscoea (Heywood et al., 2007).
Sweet Sop Family / Annonaceae / Magnoliales
The family Annonaceae is thought to fall in the Magnoliales order (Judd et al., 2008) but is not included in Botany in a Day. Many food plants occur in the family including
Paw Paw (Asimina triloba)
Poshte (Annona scleroderma)
Custard Apple (Annona reticulata)
Pond Apple (Annona glabra)
Cherimoya (Annona cherimola)
Soursop (Annona muricata)
Sweet Sop (Annona squamosa)
Mountain Soursop (Annona montana)
Soncoya (Annona purpurea)
Africa Amamense (Annona senegalensis)
Anon morado (Annona cinerea)
West and Tropical African Junglesop (Anonidium mannii)
Llama (Annona diversifolia)
Sources: (Facciola, 1998, 1998).
Several genera in this family come from Asia including Ylang ylang (Canaga odorata), Kai kung shue (Uvaria microcarpa) and Keppel Apple (Stelechocarpus burakol) (Facciola, 1998).
Paw paw (Asimina triloba) is the only temperate member of this mostly tropical New World family. It is quite a treat to have a native plant that tastes like a cross between Mango (Mangifera indica) Anacardiaceae, Banana (Musa acuminata) Musaceae, and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) Bromeliaceae. Amazingingly they grow as far north as Michigan. Other species grow further south in Georgia and Florida including Asimina incana and Asimina tetramera (Couplan, 1998). Some others include small flower Pawpaw (Asimina parviflora), Florida Pawpaw (Asimina obovata), slimleaf Pawpaw (Asimina angustifolia) and Dwarf Pawpaw (Asimina pygmea). Another genus in the family that occurs in Florida is called the False Pawpaw (Deeringothamnus spp.).
The Paw paw also has nice physical aesthetics. However, the leaves, bark, root, unripe fruit and seeds have toxic compounds and therefore are not considered edible for people. This compound is concentrated in the smaller stems which are being investigated for natural pesticide potential (Reich, 2008). The compounds including asiminine, analobine and annonaceous acetogenins that are being investigated for use in anti-tumor drugs as well (Lyle, 2006). The ripe Pawpaw is considered delicious by most but some people may have allergic reactions (Lyle, 2006).
Despite some toxicity in some parts of the Paw paw it is also host to the Zebra Swallowtail Butterfly (Eurytides marcellus) and Pawpaw Sphinx moth (Dolba hyloeus) (Tallamy, 2009).
The Pawpaw has a rich recorded history going back to early colonial exploration including De Soto in the 1500s and Lewis and Clark in the 1800s (Staub, 2008). Recorded use of the Pawpaw by Native American tribes includes the Cherokee and Iroquois (Moerman, 1998). Pawpaws may be used to make a strong fiber (Lyle, 2006).My friend and incredible internationally traveling naturalist Todd Elliot has even made a whip out of Pawpaw. They may be used as dye plants as well (Fern, 2008).
Pawpaws can be hard to cultivate. They have a deep tap roots and don’t take well to transplanting. Seeds are hard to germinate as well. Beetles and flies pollinate as is consistent with the fetid purple flowers (Lyle, 2006). However, they are often not very effective. Flowers are strongly protogynous meaning the female parts are ready long before the males of the same plant which discourages self pollination. Pollination is increased by having several varieties and manually applying pollen to stigmas. Wild Pawpaws vary greatly in quality. Improved varieties are recommended. Kentucky State University has done a lot of breeding with Pawpaw and also has some great publications about cultivation. They can be easily propagated by whip and tongue grafting (Lyle, 2006). Wild seeds can be started in sizable pots and grown on for a couple few years in shade and then put in the ground in sun whereupon an improved variety may be applied to the top. Clones may be separated from a grove if split off one year and dug out the next (Reich, 2008).
Bignoniaceae / Cross Vine Family / Lamiales
Trumpet Creeper (Campsis radicans) and Cross Vine (Bignonia capreolata) are two attractive vines from this family that grow in the southern U.S. A wonderful Eastern American tree the Southern Catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides) hints at the marvelous potential of this family to put on a spring show. Many plants, mostly trees, really light up the forest with amazing displays in the tropics. Jacaranda (Jacaranda),Trumpet Tree (Tabeuia spp.) Orange Bells (Tecoma spp.) and Sausage tree (Kigelia africana) are all tremendous ornamentals in this family.
Francois Couplan (1998) mentioned an unverified report of the roots from the Trumpet Bush (Tecoma stans) being used for a fermented beverage. According to the research of Stephen Facciola (1998) a number of plants from the Bignoniaceae have been used for food included in the table below
Flowers and young Pods *SEE BELOW
Ripe seeds added to Horchata
Young fruits pickled and seeds used to make syrup called Carabobo in Curacao as well as a coffee substitute. Leaves cooked in Africa
Fruits used to ferment beverages including Muratina, Uki and Kathroko
Indian Trumpet Flower
Young leaves and flowers are eaten uncooked. Fruits and seeds are eaten cooked. Mature seeds used in the Chinese drink Chub Liang and the Ayurveda tonic Chyavanprash
Fruits raw, cooked, roasted, pickled
African Tulip Tree
Flower bud liquid considered tonic winged seeds said to be edible
Tropical Africa/ Cultivated
Pau d Arco
Inner bark brewed into a famous tea
Source: Facciola, S. (1998). Cornucopia II: A Source Book of Edible Plants.
*Though mentioned as a food above (Catalpa ovata) fruits have catalpin, a mutagenic iridoid (Frohne & Pfander, 2005)
Pau d’ Arco is brewed as a tonic tea in South America (Facciola, 1998). Roble De Sabana (Tabebuia rosea) is used in Costa Rica as a potent antimicrobial and anti-parasitic (Navas, 2006). Paki (Crescentia cujete) is used medicinally in Costa Rica and in Jamaica (S. Austin & Thomas, 2009; Navas, 2006). (Tecoma stans) is used in Costa Rica for a number of applications as well (Navas, 2006).
Southern Catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides) is considered invasive in California while Chinese Catlapa (Catalpa ovata) and Northern Catalpa (Catalpa speciosa) are considered invasive in parts of the eastern U.S. (Burrell, 2006).
Arabidea bilabiata and Pseudocalymna are known to cause livestock poisoning in Brazil (Frohne & Pfander, 2005). According to the same source the timber from Tabebuia and Paratecoma peroba contains naphthoquinones and can cause skin irritation, though the Pau d Arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa) is free of these compounds. The foliage and flowers of Trumpet Creeper (Campsis radicans) can cause skin irritation and blisters (Westbrooks & Preacher, 1986).
Cross vine (Bignonia capreolata) is a good early food source for Ruby-throated Hummingbirds and is a preferred food of the Swamp Rabbit and moderate preference forage of the White-tailed Deer in the eastern U.S. (Miller & Miller, 2005). Trumpet Creeper (Campsis radicans) is an important Ruby-throated Hummingbird plant and is readily used by White-tailed Deer (Miller & Miller, 2005). A large array of butterflies including Swallowtails are attracted to the Desert Willow (Chilopsis linearis) (Lewis, 1995). Flowers vary in the Cross Vine family and are pollinated by bees, wasps, butterflies, hawk moths, birds and bats (Judd et al., 2008).
Acanthaceae / Bear’s Breeches Family / Lamiales
Appalachia contains mainly one member of this family known as Water Willow (Justicia americana). However, i was blown away by the diversity of this family down in Costa Rica. Many other species of Justicia grow in the southern U.S. primarily Texas and Florida as well. Azul de Mata (Justicia tinctoria) is a dye plant who’s efficacy as a traditional medicine used there is in question (Navas, 2006). Sornia (Dicliptera unguiculata) is used in traditional Costa Rican medicine against dysentery (Laurito et al., 2005). A number of members from this family are used medicinally in Jamaica including Rice Bitters (Andrographis paniculata) Freshcut (Justicia pectoralis) and Duppy Gun (Ruellia tuberosa) (S. Austin & Thomas, 2009). Some members have made their way to Florida as ornamentals including the Shrimp Plant (Justicia brandegeeana).
The black mangrove (Avicennia spp.) has been moved from the Verbenaceae to the Acanthaceae by some (Judd et al., 2008; Spears, 2006). However, others support the placement of Black Mangrove in its own family the Avicenniaceae (Heywood et al., 2007).
Bears Breeches (Acanthus mollis) is one iconic plant from Europe already popular in Roman times. i remember first noticing this plant at the Botanical Gardens in Cordoba Spain which has a fabulous collection of plants if you are ever in the area.
The flowers of Chuparosa (Justicia californica syn Beloperone californica) are good to eat raw and have been used by the Papago Native Americans as well as Hummingbirds (Couplan, 1998). The nutritious leaves and stems of Moku (Rungia klossii) are eaten raw and cooked in Papau New Guinea while Purple Rice Plant (Peristrophe speciosa) is used as a food coloring in SE Asia (Facciola, 1998).
Black Eyed Susan Vine (Thunbergia spp.) is sometimes planted in as an ornamental in temperate gardens. Polka Dot plant (Hypoestes phyllostachya) is a popular ornamental from this family and used in traditional Costa Rican medicine (Laurito et al., 2005). Britton’s Wild Petunia (Ruellia caerulea) is considered invasive in Florida (Burrell, 2006).
Phrymaceae / Lopseed Family / Lamiales
Monkeyflower (Mimulus) is most often put into the Scrophulariaceae family. However, some have supported its placement here (Judd et al., 2008; Spears, 2006). According to the USDA site http://plants.usda.gov many plants formerly in the genus Mimulus are now in the Bush Monkeyflower genus (Diplacus).
Mimulus cardinalis attracts several butterflies including Checkerspots, Ringlets, Painted Lady, Cabbage White, and Checkered White (Lewis, 1995). Sticky Monkey flower (Diplacus aurantiacus ssp. aurantiacus syn M. aurantiacus) which is native to Southern California is a larval food plant for Common Buckeye and Chalcedon Checkerspot (Lewis, 1995).
Due to various time constraints this is the last class of the year. However, i vow to spend a good bit of time this winter working up new classes and a lot more photo albums too...Wishing the greatest peace and release in this holiday season to you!
Below are items to think about/comment on. Please write me directly at firstname.lastname@example.org or leave information in the commentary under this class.
i WOULD REALLY LOVE TO HEAR WHAT YOU HAVE TO SAY!!!
Plan to go to a conservatory at a place near you and meet some tropical plants.
Discover what area of the world your house plants come from.
Write a list of tropical plants that you consumed for food and where they originated and are currently produced
Post any clear photos of question plants to Facebook or send in an email.
Praises to all that have donated to the cause. i encourage everyone reading this to donate as they are able financially, commentarially, or energetically... Your contributions greatly help me continue this crucial work of ethnobotanical research and education. Please let me know your thoughts in general and any way i can help this class serve you best.
Abbott, I. A. (1992). La’au Hawai’i: Traditional Hawaiian Uses of Plants. Bishop Museum Press.
Acevedo, H., Bustamante, J., Paniagua, L., & Chaves, R. (2002). Ecosistemas de la Cuenca Hidrográfica Del Río Savegre, Costa Rica (1ST ed.). Editorial INBio.
Ackerman, J. D. (1995). An Orchid Flora of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (First Edition edition.). Bronx, N.Y: New York Botanical Garden.
Ackerman, J. D. (2014). Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles. The New York Botanical Garden Press.
Allsopp, J. (2003). The Caribbean Multilingual Dictionary of Flora, Fauna and Foods in English, French, French Creole and Spanish (Mul edition.). Kingston, Jamaica: Arawak Publications.
Alrich, P., & Higgins, W. (2008). The Marie Selby Botanical Gardens Illustrated Dictionary of Orchid Genera. (B. Hensen, R. L. Dressler, & T. Sheehan, Eds.). Ithaca; Sarasota, FL: Comstock Publishing Associates.
Ames, O., & Correll, D. S. (2012). Orchids of Guatemala and Belize. Dover Publications.
Anderson, C. (1994). Hawaii Tropical Botanical Gardens: A Garden in a Valley on the Ocean. Papaikou, HI: Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden.
Arbeit, W. (1990). Baskets in Polynesia: A Kolowalu Book. Honolulu, HI: Univ of Hawaii Press.
Arce, L. G. (2005). Árboles y Arbustos Comunes del Parque Internacional La Amistad (1ST ed.). Editorial INBio.
Arvigo, R. (1995). Sastun: My Apprenticeship with a Maya Healer (Reprint.). HarperOne.
Arvigo, R., & Balick, M. (1993). Rainforest Remedies: 100 Healing Herbs of Belize (0002- ed.). Lotus Press.
Arvigo, R., & Epstein, N. (2001). Rainforest Home Remedies: The Maya Way To Heal Your Body and Replenish Your Soul (1st ed.). HarperOne.
Austin, D. (1999). Scrub Plant Guide: A Pocket Guide to the Common Plants of Southern Florida’s Scrub Community. (S. Bass, Ed.). Palm Beach, FL: Gumbo Limbo Nature Center.
Austin, D. F. (2004). Florida Ethnobotany (1st ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Austin, S., & Thomas, M. (2009). Common Medicinal Plants of Portland Jamaica (2nd. ed.). United States: CIEER, Inc.
Ayre, S. (2002). Bush doctor. Kingston, Jamaica; London: LMH ; Turnaround.
Balick, M. J., Nee, M. H., & Atha, D. E. (2000). Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize. Bronx, NY: New York Botanical Garden Press.
Barwick, M., & Schans, A. van der. (2004). Tropical and Subtropical Trees: A Worldwide Encyclopaedic Guide. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd.
Berry, F., & Kress, W. J. (1991). Heliconia an Identification Guide. Washington: Smithsonian Books.
Bird, A. J., & Bird, J. P. K. (1987). Hawaiian Flower Lei Making. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Bird, A. J., Goldsberry, S., & Bird, J. P. K. (1982). The Craft of Hawaiian Lauhala Weaving. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Bohm, B. A. (2009). Hawaii’s Native Plants (2nd ed.). Honolulu: Mutual Pub Co.
Bornhorst, H. L. (2005). Growing Native Hawaiian Plants: A How-To Guide for the Gardener (Revised ed.). Honolulu, Hawai’i: Bess Press.
Bourne, M. J., Lennox, G. W., & Seddon, S. A. (1988). Fruits and vegetables of the Caribbean. London: Macmillan Education.
Branney, T. M. E. (2005). Hardy Gingers: Including Hedychium, Roscoea, and Zingiber. Portland, OR: Timber Press, Incorporated.
Brown, P. M. (2002). Wild orchids of Florida: with references to the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.
Brücher, H. (2011). Useful Plants of Neotropical Origin: and Their Wild Relatives (Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1989 edition.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
Brunner, B. R. (2013). Tropical Flower Cultivation: The Heliconias. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
Buck, P. H., & Hiroa, T. R. (1957a). Arts and Crafts of Hawaii: Clothing. Honolulu HI: Bishop Museum Press.
Buck, P. H., & Hiroa, T. R. (1957b). Arts and Crafts of Hawaii: Ornaments and Personal Adornment. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.
Buck, P. H., & Hiroa, T. R. (1957c). Arts and Crafts of Hawaii: Plaiting. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Pr.
Burrell, C. C. (2006). Native Alternatives to Invasive Plants. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Cabin, R. J. (2013). Restoring Paradise: Rethinking and Rebuilding Nature in Hawaii. Honolulu: Univ Hawaii Pr.
Catesby, M., & Kislak, J. I. (1771). The Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands: Containing the Figures of Birds, Beasts, Fishes, Serpents, Insects, and Plants: Particularly, Those Not Hitherto Described, or Incorrectly Figured by Former Authors, with Their Descriptions In. London: Printed for Benjamin White ...
Céspedes, F. C., & Lindquist, E. S. (2007). Árboles Comunes de la Reserva Natural Absoluta Cabo Blanco Costa Rica / Common Trees of Cabo Blanco Absolute Nature Reserve. INBio Editorial.
Chizmar, C., Lu, A., & Correa, M. (2009). Plantas de uso folclorico y tradicional en Panama. (J. F. Morales, Ed.). Editorial INBio , Costa Rica.
Cho, S.-A. (1976). Chemical Investigation of Terpenoids from Jamaican Plants. University of West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.
Condit, R., Pérez, R., & Daguerre, N. (2010). Trees of Panama and Costa Rica. Princeton University Press.
Cooke, V., & Sampley, J. (2013). Palmetto Braiding and Weaving: Using Palm Fronds to Create Baskets, Bags, Hats & More. S.l.: Echo Point Books & Media.
Couplan, F. (1998). The Encyclopedia of Edible Plants of North America. New Canaan, CT: Keats Pub.
Craft, P., Riffle, R. L., & Zona, S. (2012). The Encyclopedia of Cultivated Palms (2nd ed.). Portland, OR: Timber Press.
Croat, T. (1978). Flora of Barro Colorado Island (1 edition.). Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.
Crow, G. E. (2002). Plantas acuáticas del Parque Nacional Palo Verde / Aquatic Plants of Palo Verde National Park (1ST ed.). Editorial INBio.
Culliney, J. L., & Koebele, B. P. (1999). A Native Hawaiian Garden: How to Grow and Care for Island Plants. Honolulu, HI: Univ of Hawaii Press.
D’Arcy, W. G. (1985). The Botany and Natural History of Panama: LA Botanica E Historia Natural De Panama. (M. D. Correa, Ed.). Saint Louis, Mo., U.S: Missouri Botanical Garden.
D’Arcy, W. G. (1987). Flora of Panama: Checklist and Index. Saint Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden.
Davis, W. (1985). The Serpent and the Rainbow: A Harvard Scientist’s Astonishing Journey into the Secret Society of Haitian Voodoo, Zombis and Magic (1st edition.). New York: Simon and Schuster.
Deuerling, R. J., & Lantz, P. S. (1993). Florida’s Incredible Wild Edibles (Reprint ed.). Florida Native Plant Society.
Downum, K. R., Romeo, J. T., & Stafford, H. A. (Eds.). (1993). Phytochemical Potential of Tropical Plants. New York: Springer.
Dressler, R. L. (1994). Field Guide to the Orchids of Costa Rica and Panama. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Elpel, T. (2013). Botany in a Day: The Patterns Method of Plant Identification. Pony, MT: HOPS Press, LLC.
Elpel, T. J., & Cook, F. (2006). Botany in a Day: The Patterns method of Plant Identification (Frank Cook personal copy.). Pony, MT: HOPS Press.
Erickson, T. A., & Puttock, C. F. (2006). Hawai’i wetland field guide: an ecological and identification guide to wetlands and wetland plants of the Hawaiian Islands. Honolulu: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Ericson, R. B. (2006). The Conscious Consumer: Promoting Economic Justice Through Fair Trade. Washington, D.C.: Fair Trade Resource Network.
Estrada, A., & Rodríguez, A. (2009). Flores de pasión de Costa Rica / Passion Flowers of Costa Rica (1st ed.). Editorial INBio.
Facciola, S. (1998). Cornucopia II: A Source Book of Edible Plants. Vista, CA: Kampong Publications.
Fahs, B. (2006). Super Simple Guide to Creating Hawaiian Gardens: For Kama’aina and Malihini. Bloomington, ID: AuthorHouse.
Fairchild, D. (1982). The World Was My Garden: Travels of a Plant Explorer (Reprint.). Banyan Books.
Fayaz, A. (2011). Encyclopedia of Tropical Plants: Identification and Cultivation of Over 3000 Tropical Plants. Richmond Hill, Ont.: Firefly Books.
Fern, K. (2008). Plants for a future - 7300 useful plants database. Retrieved April 23, 2009, from http://www.pfaf.org/index.php
Fournier Origgi, L., & García D., E. G. (1998). Nombres vernaculares y científicos de árboles de Costa Rica. San José, Costa Rica: Editorial Guayacán.
Frohne, D., & Pfander, H. J. (2005). Poisonous Plants: A Handbook for Doctors, Pharmacists, Toxicologists, Biologists and Veterinarians (2nd ed.). Portland, OR: Timber Press, Inc.
Garcia, H., Sierra, A., Balam, G., & Balam, H. (1999). Wind in the Blood: Mayan Healing & Chinese Medicine. (J. Conant, Trans.). North Atlantic Books.
Gargiullo, M., Magnuson, B., & Kimball, L. (2008). A Field Guide to the Plants of Costa Rica. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.
Gómez, L. D., & Arbeláez, A. L. (2009). Flora de Nicaragua: Tomo IV, Helechos. (W. D. Stevens, O. M. Montiel, & A. Pool, Eds.). Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
González, J. (2005). Plantas comunes de la Reserva Biológica Hitoy Cerere / Common Plants of the Hitoy Cerere Biological Reserve - Costa Rica (1ST ed.). Editorial INBio.
Goodloe, W. H. (1976). Coconut Palm Frond Weaving. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle Company.
Greenwell, A. B. H. V. D., Lincoln, N., & Van Dyke, P. (2009). Amy Greenwell Garden Ethnobotanical Guide to Native Hawaiian Plants & Polynesian-Introduced Plants. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press.
Greenwood-Robinson, M. (1999). Kava: Nature’s Wonder Herb. New York: Dell.
Gutmanis, J. (1976). Kahuna La’au Lapa’au: Hawaiian Herbal Medicine. Island Heritage Publishing.
Gutmanis, J. (1995). Kahuna La’au Lapa’au: The Practice of Hawaiian Herbal Medicine. Aiea, Hawaii: Island Heritage.
Haehner, R. K. (2006). Gesneriáceas de Costa Rica / Gesneriads of Costa Rica (1st ed.). INBio.
Hall, J. (2008). A Hiker’s Guide to Trailside Plants in Hawai`i. Honolulu, Hawai`i: Mutual Pub.
Hammel, B. (2005). Plantas ornamentales nativas de Costa Rica / Costa Rica Native Ornamental Plants (3rd ed.). Editorial INBio.
Harmon, P. (2004). Árboles del Parque Nacional Manuel Antonio (1st ed.). Editorial INBio.
Harris, I. (2010). Healing herbs of Jamaica. Royal Palm Beach, FL: AhHa Press.
Heckman, M. (2001). Lei Aloha: Flower Lei of Hawaii with instructions. Waipahu, Hawaiʻi: Island Heritage Publishing.
Henry, M., Harris, Kevin S. (2002). The LMH official dictionary of Jamaican herbs & medicinal plants and their uses. Kingston: LMH Pub.
Heywood, V. H., Brummitt, R. K., Culham, A., & Seberg, O. (2007). Flowering Plant Families of the World (Revised.). Buffalo, NY; Richmond Hill, Ont.: Firefly Books.
Higgs, M. L. (1978). Bush Medicine In The Bahamas. Nassau Guardian (1844) Ltd.
Higman, B. W. (2008). Jamaican food: history, biology, culture. Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press.
Holdridge, L. R. (1997). Arboles De Costa Rica Vol. 1. Centro Cientifico Tropical.
Huegel, C. N. (1995). Florida plants for wildlife: a selection guide to native trees and shrubs. Orlando, FL: Florida Native Plant Society.
Hutton, W., & Cassio, A. (2004). Handy Pocket Guide to Tropical Fruits. Singapore: Periplus Editions.
Ide, L. (2001). Hawaiian Lei Making. Honolulu, HI: Mutual Publishing.
Ide, L. S. (2000). Hawai’i’s Seeds and Seed Leis: An Identification Guide. Honolulu, HI: Mutual Pub Co.
Ide, L. S. (2002). Hawaii’s Flower Leis: An Identification Guide. Honolulu, HI: Mutual Publishing.
Irizarry, W. J. (2012). Ewe Osain: 221 Plants, Herbs and Trees essential to the Lucumi tradition. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
Judd, W. S., Campbell, C. S., Kellog, E. A., Stevens, P. F., & Donahue, M. J. (2008). Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach (3rd ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Juvik, J., Delay, J., Merlin, M., & Castillo, M. (2008). Endangered Plants and Threatened Ecosystems on the Island of Hawaii. Hilo, Hawaiʻi: Petroglyph Pr Ltd.
Kappelle, M. (2008). Biodiversidad de los Bosques de Roble (encino) de la América tropical / Biodiversity of the Oak Forests of Tropical America (1ST ed.). Editorial INBio.
Kappelle, M., Castro, M., Acevedo, H., González, L., & Monge, H. (2003). Ecosistemas del Área de Conservación Osa (ACOSA) / Ecosystems of the Osa Conservation Area (ACOSA) - Costa Rica (1ST ed.). Editorial INBio.
Kappelle, M., & Horn, S. P. (Eds.). (2005). Páramos de Costa Rica (1ST ed.). Editorial INBio.
Keawe, L. O. M. A., MacDowell, M., & Dewurst, C. K. (Eds.). (2014). Ike Ulana Lau Hala: The Vitality and Vibrancy of Lau Hala Weaving Traditions in Hawaii. Honolulu, HI: Univ of Hawaii Press.
Kepler, A. (2004). Hawaii’s Floral Splendor (5th printing.). Honolulu, Hawai’i: Mutual Pub Co.
Kepler, A. K. (1990). Trees of Hawai’i. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Kepler, A. K. (1995). Maui’s Floral Splendor. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing.
Kepler, A. K. (1996). Proteas in Hawaii. Honolulu, HI: Mutual Publishing.
Kepler, A. K. (1998). Hawaiian Heritage Plants (Rev ed.). Honolulu, HI: Univ of Hawaii Press.
Kepler, A. K., & Mau, J. R. (1989). Exotic Tropicals of Hawaii: Heliconias, Gingers, Anthuriums and Decorative Foliage. Honolulu, Hawaii: Pr Pacifica.
Kepler, A. K., & Rust, F. G. (2011). The World of Bananas in Hawai’i: Then and Now: Traditional Pacific & Global Varieties, Cultures, Ornamentals, Health & Recipes. Haiku, Hawaii: Univ of Hawaii Pr.
Kilham, C. S. (1996). Kava: Medicine Hunting in Paradise: The Pursuit of a Natural Alternative to Anti-Anxiety Drugs and Sleeping Pills. Rochester, Vt: Park Street Press.
Koont, S. (2011). Sustainable Urban Agriculture in Cuba. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.
Krauss, B. H. (2001a). Plants in Hawaiian Culture. Univ of Hawaii Pr.
Krauss, B. H. (2001b). Plants in Hawaiian Medicine. Bess Pr Inc.
Kurz, H., & Godfrey, R. (1962). Trees of Northern Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.
LaGotta, G., & Pimm, S. (2011). A Complete Guide to our Museum of Living Collections. Key West, FL: Key West Botanical Garden Society.
Lantz, P. S. (2014). Florida’s Edible Wild Plants: A Guide to Collecting and Cooking. Seaside Publishing.
Laurito, V. N., Sanchez-Vindas, P., & Manfredi Abarca, R. (2005). Hierbas y Arbustos Comunes en Cafetales y Otros Cultivos. San Jose, Costa Rica: Herbario Juvenal Valerio Rodriguez.
Lebot, V., Merlin, M., & Lindstrom, L. (1997). Kava: The Pacific Elixir: The Definitive Guide to Its Ethnobotany, History, and Chemistry. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.
Leiva, A. (2007). Trees of Cuba. Oxford: Macmillan Caribbean.
Lellinger, D. B. (1989). The Ferns and Fern-Allies of Costa Rica, Panama, and the Chocó. Washington, D.C.: American Fern Society.
Lennox, G. W., & Seddon, S. A. (1978). Flowers of the Caribbean, the Bahamas, and Bermuda. London: Macmillan.
Lewis, A. (Ed.). (1995). Butterfly Gardens. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Lilleeng-Rosenberger, K. L. (2005). Growing Hawaii’s Native Plants: A Simple Step-by-Step Approach for Every Species. Honolulu, Hawaiʻi: Mutual Publishing.
Liogier, H. A., & Martorell, L. F. (1999). Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: A Systematic Synopsis (2nd ed.). San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, Universidad de Puerto Rico.
Little, E. L. (1978). Atlas of United States Trees Volume 5. Florida. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service.
Littler, D. S., Littler, M. M., Bucher, K. E., & Norris, J. N. (1989). Marine Plants of the Caribbean. A Field Guide from Florida to Brazil. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian.
Llamas, K. (2003). Tropical Flowering Plants: A Guide to Identification and Cultivation. Portland, OR: Timber Press, Inc.
Lyle, S. (2006). Fruit and Nuts: A Comprehensive Guide to the Cultivation, Uses and Health Benefits of over 300 Food-Producing Plants. Portland, OR: Timber Press, Inc.
Macmahon, D. A., & Marquardt, W. H. (2004). The Calusa and Their Legacy: South Florida People and Their Environments (1st ed.). University Press of Florida.
Madrigal, Q. J. (1993). Arboles Maderables en Peligro de Extincion en Costa Rica. INCAFO.
Marquardt, W. H., & Payne, C. (1992). Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa. Iaps Books.
Martin, F. W., Ruberte, R. M., & Meitzner, L. S. (1998). Edible Leaves of the Tropics (3rd ed.). North Fort Myers, FL: ECHO.
McCormack, J., Holt, Maier, K., & Wallens, P., B. (2011). Bush Medicine of the Bahamas. Charlottesville, VA: JHM Designs Publications.
McNally, T., & Cass, H. (1998). Kava: Nature’s Answer to Stress, Anxiety, and Insomnia. Rocklin, CA: Prima Lifestyles.
Merwin, W. S., Wilcove, D. S., Middleton, S., & Liittschwager, D. (2003). Remains of a Rainbow: Rare Plants and Animals of Hawaii. Washington, D.C.; London: National Geographic.
Messing, R. H., & Wright, M. G. (2006). Biological control of invasive species: solution or pollution? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 4(3), 132–140. doi:10.1890/1540-9295(2006)004[0132:BCOISS]2.0.CO;2
Miller, J. H., & Miller, K. V. (2005). Forest Plants Of The Southeast And Their Wildlife Uses (Revised.). Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.
Moerman, D. E. (1998). Native American Ethnobotany (1st ed.). Portland, OR: Timber Press, Incorporated.
Morales, J. F. (2000). Bromelias de Costa Rica Bromeliads (2nd ed.). INBio.
Morales, J. F. (2006). Orquídeas, cactus y bromelias del bosque seco / Orchids, Cacti and Bromeliads of the Dry Forest (2nd ed.). Editorial INBio.
Morales, J. F. (2009a). Orquídeas de Costa Rica / Orchids of Costa Rica. Vol. 1 (2nd ed.). Editorial INBio.
Morales, J. F. (2009b). Orquídeas de Costa Rica / Orchids of Costa Rica. Vol. 2 (2nd ed.). Editorial INBio.
Morales, J. F. (2009c). Orquídeas de Costa Rica / Orchids of Costa Rica. Vol. 3 (1st edition.). Editorial INBio.
Morales, J. F. (2009d). Orquídeas de Costa Rica / Orchids of Costa Rica. Vol. 4 (1st edition.). Editorial INBio.
Morales, J. F. (2009e). Orquídeas de Costa Rica / Orchids of Costa Rica. Vol. 5 (1st edition.). Editorial INBio.
Morrison, R. "Haole B., & H, A. (2000). The Guide to Basket Weaving: Creative Weaving with Coconut Palms. ʻAiea, Hawaiʻi: Island Heritage Publishing.
Motooka, P. S. (2003). Weeds of Hawaiʻi’s pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide. Honolulu, Hawaiʻi: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa.
Mowbray, A. (2012). The Trees of El Yunque: Flora of a Caribbean Island Rainforest. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
Mueller-Dombois, D., & Fosberg, F. R. (1997). Vegetation of the Tropical Pacific Islands (Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1998 edition.). New York: Springer.
Navas, H. R. (2006). La Utilidad de Las Plantas Medicinales en Costa Rica (1st ed. 4th Printing.). Heredia, Costa Rica: Editorial Universidad Nacional.
Nelson, C., & Andino, R. (n.d.). Guia Dendrologica Del Sendero El Ceibon. Jardin Botanico de Lancetilla. (Z. Avila & A. Salgado, Eds.). Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Forestales.
Nelson, G. (1998). The Trees of Florida: A Reference and Field Guide. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press.
Obando, V., & Herrera, Á. (2010). Conocimiento y conservación de la biodiversidad en Centroamérica (1st ed.). Editorial INBio.
Palmer, D. D. (2008). Hawai’i’s Ferns and Fern Allies. Univ of Hawaii Press.
Payne-Jackson, A., & Alleyne, M. C. (2004). Jamaican folk medicine: a source of healing. Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press.
Perrero, L. (1976). World of Tropical Flowers. Miami, FL: Windward Pub Co.
Polini, A. C. (2008). Historia Natural del Parque Nacional Chirripó. INBio Editorial.
Poveda, L. J., Jiménez, Q., & Zamora, N. (2011). Trees of Costa Rica vol. IV. (D. Ávila, Ed.) (First edition (Kindle).). Editorial INBio.
Pratt, H. D. 1944-(Harold D. (1998). A Pocket Guide to Hawai`i’s Trees and Shrubs. Honolulu, Hawaii: Mutual Pub.
Purvis, W. (2000). Lichens (1st Edition. edition.). Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Books.
Quinlan, M. (2010). Ethnomedicine and ethnobotany of fright, a Caribbean culture-bound psychiatric syndrome. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 6(1), 9. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-6-9
Quinlan, M. B. (2000). Bush medicine in Bwa Mawego: ethnomedicine and medical botany of common illnesses in a Dominican village.
Quinlan, M. B., & Quinlan, R. J. (2006). Balancing the system: humoral medicine and food in the commonwealth of Dominica., 197–212.
Quinlan, M. B., & Quinlan, R. J. (2007). Modernization and Medicinal Plant Knowledge in a Caribbean Horticultural Village. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 21(2), 169–192. doi:10.1525/maq.2007.21.2.169
Quinlan, M. B., Quinlan, R. J., & Nolan, J. M. (2002). Ethnophysiology and herbal treatments of intestinal worms in Dominica, West Indies. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 80(1), 75–83. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00002-8
Quinlan, R. J. (2005). Kinship, Gender & Migration from a Rural Caribbean Community. Migration Letters, 2(1), 1–11.
Quinlan, R. J., & Flinn, M. V. (2005). Kinship, sex, and fitness in a Caribbean community. Human Nature, 16(1), 32–57. doi:10.1007/s12110-005-1006-3
Quirós, L. H. (2006). Karl Hoffmann: Naturalista, Médico y Héroe Nacional. INBio.
Quiros-Moran, D. (2009). Guide to Afro-Cuban herbalism. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.
Ransom, D. (2001). The No-Nonsense Guide to Fair Trade. Oxford: New Internationalist Publications.
Rauch, F. D., & Weissich, P. R. (2000). Plants for Tropical Landscapes: A Gardener’s Guide. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
Reichert, R. (1997). Kava Kava: The Anti-Anxiety Herb That Relaxes and Sharpens the Mind. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing.
Reich, L. (2008). Uncommon Fruits for Every Garden. Portland, OR: Timber Press.
Rietsema, J., & Beveridge, D. (2009). The Plants of Caye Caulker. Produccicones de la Hamaca.
Rivero, J. A., & Brunner, B. R. (2006). Arboles Frutales Exoticos Y Poco Conocidos En Puerto Rico. (L. E. U. de P. Rico, Ed.) (First Edition.). La Editorial, U. de Puerto Rico.
Robertson, D. (1988). Jamaican Herbs: Nutritional & Medicinal Values. DeSola Pinto Associates.
Rollins, C. (2006). The Fruit and Spice Park. (L. Bohorquez, Ed.). Lawrenceburg, IN: The Creative Company.
Roth, S. A., & Schrader, D. (2000). Hot Plants for Cool Climates: Gardening with Tropical Plants in Temperate Zones. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Roubik, D. W., & Hanson, P. E. (2004). Abejas de orquídeas de la América tropical: Biología y guía de campo / Orchid Bees of Tropical America: Biology and Field Guide (1st ed.). Editorial INBio.
Sahelian, R. (1998). Kava: The Miracle Antianxiety Herb. New York: St. Martin’s Paperbacks.
Sanchez-Vindas, P., Poveda, L. J., & Arnason, J. (2005). Guia Dendrologica Costarricense (1st ed.). Heredia, Costa Rica: Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica.
Scurlock, J. P. (1996). Native Trees and Shrubs of the Florida Keys : A Field Guide/Also South Florida, Cuba, the Bahamas, the Islands of the Caribbean, Parts of Mexico, sout (3rd ed.). Lower Sugarloaf Key, FL: Hafftime Enterprises.
Seddon, S. A., & Lennox, G. W. (1980). Trees of the Caribbean. London: Macmillan Caribbean.
Seymour, F. C. (2012). A check list of the vascular plants of Nicaragua : based largely on collections in Nicaragua made by the author and companions, 1968-1976. Ulan Press.
Shimizu-ide, L. (2008). Money Lei Making in Hawaii 2: A Step-by-step Guide. Honolulu, HI: Mutual Publishing.
Skutch, A. F. (2000). Un naturalista en Costa Rica (A naturalist in Costa Rica). Editorial INBio.
Smith, C. (1988). Checklist of Vascular Plants of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. University of Hawaii at Manoa.
Smith, M. H.-. (2005). Bush Medicine In Bahamina Folk Tradition. Dodd Printers.
Snow, A. M., & Stans, S. E. (2001). Healing Plants: Medicine of the Florida Seminole Indians (1st ed.). Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.
Southgate, D. (1998). Tropical Forest Conservation: An Economic Assessment of the Alternatives in Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Spears, P. (2006). A Tour of the Flowering Plants: Based on the Classification System of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
Staples, G. (2005). A tropical garden flora: plants cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and other tropical places. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press.
Staples, G., & Cowie, R. H. (2001). Hawai`i’s invasive species: a guide to invasive plants and animals in the Hawaiian Islands. Honolulu, Hawaii: Mutual Pub.
Staub, J. (2008). 75 Remarkable Fruits For Your Garden. Gibbs Smith.
Stebbins, M. (1999). Flowering Trees of Florida. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press.
Stevenson, G. B. (1970). Weaving With Coconut Palm. Banyan Books.
Stevens, W. D., Ulloa, C. U., Pool, A., & Montiel, O. M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
Stone, C. P., & Pratt, L. W. (1995). Hawaii’s Plants and Animals: Biological Sketches of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Honolulu, Hawaii: Univ of Hawaii Press.
Svetaz, L., Zuljan, F., Derita, M., Petenatti, E., Tamayo, G., Cáceres, A., … Gupta, M. (2010). Value of the ethnomedical information for the discovery of plants with antifungal properties. A survey among seven Latin American countries. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 127(1), 137–158. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.034
Sylvester, O., & Avalos, G. (2009). Illegal Palm Heart (Geonoma edulis) Harvest in Costa Rican National Parks: Patterns of Consumption and Extraction. Economic Botany, 63(2), 179–189. doi:10.1007/s12231-009-9081-8
Tallamy, D. (2009). Bringing Nature Home: How You Can Sustain Wildlife with Native Plants (Updated Ed.). Portland, OR: Timber Press.
Taylor, W. K. (1992). The Guide to Florida Wildflowers. Taylor Trade Publishing.
Thomas, H., Robert. (2009). Cuba and Porto Rico, with the other islands of the West Indies; their topography, climate, flora, pr. BiblioBazaar.
Umaña, L., & Sipman, H. (2002). Líquenes de Costa Rica / Costa Rica Lichens (1st ed.). Editorial INBio.
Utteridge, T., & Bramley, G. (Eds.). (2014). The Kew Tropical Plant Families Identification Handbook. Richmond, Surrey: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Valerio, C. E. (2004). Los Increíbles Higuerones / Incredible Fig Trees (1ST ed.). INBio.
Valier, K. (1995). Ferns of Hawai’i. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Vandermeer, J. H. (Ed.). (2002). Tropical Agroecosystems (1st ed.). CRC Press.
Vindas, E. A. (2003). Plantas Comunes Del Parque Nacional Chirripó, Costa Rica / Common Plants of Chirripó National Park (2nd ed.). INBio.
Wagner, W. L., Herbst, D. R., & Sohmer, S. H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai’i (Rev Sub edition.). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
Walji, H. (1997). Kava: Nature’s Relaxant for Anxiety, Stress and Pain. Prescott, AZ: Hohm Press.
Warren, W., & Tettoni, L. I. (2000). The Tropical Garden (Revised ed.). London: Thames & Hudson.
Warren, W., & Tettoni, L. I. (2004). Handy Pocket Guide to Tropical Flowers. Singapore: Periplus Editions.
Westbrooks, R. G., & Preacher, J. W. (1986). Poisonous Plants of Eastern North America (1st ed.). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.
Whistler, W. A. (1994). Polynesian Herbal Medicine. Pacific Tropical Botanical.
Whitton, K. J. (2009). A Pocket Guide to Hawai’i’s Botanical Gardens. Honolulu, Hawai’i: Mutual Pub.
Widess, J. (2006). How to Weave Hawaiian Coconut Palm Fronds. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing.
Widess, J. (2011). How to Weave Authentic Hawaiian Lauhala Bracelets: A Step by Step Guide. Honolulu, Hawaii: Mutual Publishing.
Wilmanowicz, R. (2011). Bush Medicine in the Bahamas - A Modern Approach: Modern Phytotherapy is based on traditional Bush Medicines and plants are the foundation of many ... therapies and should get more attention. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
Wood, K. M. (2003). The Flowers of the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands. Macmillan Caribbean.
Wood, P. (2010a). Flowers and Plants of Hawai’i. Waipahu, Hawaii: Island Heritage Publishing.
Wood, P. (2010b). Tropical Trees of Hawai`i. Waipahu, Hawai`i: Island Heritage Publishing.
Wunderlin, R. P., & Hansen, B. F. (2011). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida (Third Edition.). University Press of Florida.
Zamora, N. V., Jimenez, Q., & Poveda, L. J. (2004). Árboles de Costa Rica / Trees of Costa Rica, Vol. 3. Editorial INBio.
Ziegler, A. C. (2002). Hawaiian Natural History, Ecology, and Evolution (Annotated ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Zuchowski, W. (2007). Tropical Plants of Costa Rica: A Guide to Native and Exotic Flora. Cornell University Press.