2020 Plant Talk 7: Cultivated Temperate Food Plants

2020 Plant Talk 7: Cultivated Temperate Food Plants

6/13/20 marc williams marc@botanyeveryday.com

Greetings plant enthusiasts!

Recent Events

     The Medicine’s From the Earth conference happened in a virtual format recently. Feeling grateful for the chance to present there once again! The topic covering the Botany of Africa and the People of its Diaspora being one close to my heart and an often underappreciated force unto the world! All the more germane in the times we live in now where the experience of African and African American people can be terribly fraught with all sorts of obstacles not common to some other groups in society! More on that in the coming weeks. So much to process...

Lots of gardening, nursery work, picture taking and tons of online work as well especially for the United Plant Savers and Plants and Healers International has been keeping me very busy lately…

What’s Blooming

     Here's a list of a majority of the things blooming around Western North Carolina currently

American Ipecac (Gillenia trifoliata), Anise Hyssop (Agastache foeniculum), Beardtongue (Penstemon spp.), Beetleweed (Galax urceolata), Betony (Stachys spp.), Blanketflower (Gaillardia sp.), Butterfly Bush (Buddleja spp.), California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica), Chickory (Cichorium intybus), Clovers (Trifolium spp.), Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus), Crown Vetch (Securigera varia), Dahlia spp., Day Lily (Hemerocallis fulva), Devil’s Bit (Chamaelirium luteum), Elderberry (Sambucus spp.), Fleabane (Erigeron sp.), Forget me Not (Myosotis spp.), Japanese Spirea (Spiraea japonica), Jewelweed (Impatiens spp.), Larkspur (Delphinium spp.), Little Brown Jugs (Hexastylis sp.), Love in a Mist (Nigella damascena), Mallow (Malva sp.), Milkvine (Matelea sp.), Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.), Milkwort (Polygala sp.), Mountain Mint (Pycnanthemum spp.), Speedwell (Veronica spp.), Spiderwort (Tradescantia spp.), Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), Spurge (Euphorbia sp.), Stoke’s Aster (Stokesia laevis), Sweet Clover (Melilotus officinalis), Tickseed (Coreopsis sp.), Valerian (Valeriana officinalis), Vervain (Verbena hastata), Winged Perennial Pea (Lathyrus latifolius), Yarrow (Achillea millefolium), Yucca (Yucca filamentosa), Zinnia sp. to name a few.

Also did you know that Yucca flowers can be eaten stuffed and cooked and sometimes raw? However the raw flowers may cause slight irritation. Day Lilies (Hemerocallis fulva) are famously treated the same way. They are also dried and added to soup and make great pickles when in bud as well.

Ready for Harvest

     It has been a great fruit year around Asheville, NC! Currently Black Raspberries (Rubus occidentalis), Blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), Juneberries (Amelanchier spp.), Goumi berries (Elaeagnus multiflora), Mulberries (Morus spp.) and Strawberries are all on offer for starters! George Brabant live is Asheville and has a plethora of videos showcasing what can be on offer food production wide in an urban context when done well.

Hemlock Reishi mushrooms (Ganoderma tsugae) have been good this year and my firend and colleague Dina Falconi has a nice video one that subject. Berkeley’s Polypore (Bondarzewia berkeleyi), Black Chanterelle (Craterellus cornucopioides), and other Chanterelles (Cantharellus spp.) are some others to be on the lookout for. My friend Jess recently found some of the unusual Fried Chicken Mushroom (Lyophyllum decastes).

Some vegetables being harvested around western North Carolina include members of the Brassicaceae for greens such as Cabbage, Kale, Mizuna and Lettuce (Lactuca spp.) from the Asteraceae. Wild greens include Amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) and Lambsquarters (Chenopodium spp.). Culinary herb wise i just harvest my first Basil (Ocimum basilicum) and Nasturtium (Tropaeolum sp.) leaves of the year. Root crops include Beets (Beta vulgaris) and Radishes (Raphanus sativus).

Food Plants of Temperate Places

     Food is a fundamental part of any organism’s basic needs. Food choices can also paint a picture of a society as they are often reflective of class and cultural distinctions.  Cookbooks, travelogues, and ethnobotanical studies were reviewed as sources of literature for this class which reflects food choices in southern Appalachia in particular with a smattering of information from other areas of the temperate world as well. Like a lot of these online classes about specific subjects of use it has grown out of my graduate school studies and is most germane to the eastern U.S.A., but many of these crops are grown all over the world as well. A nice world literature exists regarding the all-time major crop plants (Facciola, 1998; Fern, 2000; National Geographic Society (United States), 2008; Van Wyk, 2005; Wiersema & León, 2013). Certainly often at the genus and definitely for the most part at the family level many associations can be made from continent to continent in cold places.

In this class we will cover cultivated food plants past and present, cultural techniques for growing them, concepts of agrobiodiversity and potential business opportunities for local communities. i would love to hear reflections about food plants and traditions from the area you inhabit by email, in the comment box below or at the Facebook group.

Studies of agriculture in Appalachia have continued periodically at least through the last century (Arcury, 1989; Coltrane, 1965; Gragson & Bolstad, 2006; Otto, 1983; Pudup, 1990; Roosevelt, 1902; James Robert Veteto, 2005; Weingartner et al., 1989; A. B. Wilson, 2006). A bibliography of agriculture in Appalachia developed by the University of Kentucky represents another good source of information (G. H. Graves, 1988).

Past populations in Appalachia depended largely on cultivated crops of corn, beans, and squash mixed with large amounts of pork and game (Hilliard, 1972).  Most of the 50 plus Appalachian cookbooks i examined have very few vegetable recipes in comparison to meats and baked goods. Nonetheless, i contend that vegetables including wild plants made up a significant proportion of the Appalachian dietary regime before modern conveniences allowed for a heavy focus on protein and carbohydrates. The carbohydrate part along with a prevalence of salty and fatty foods have famously become a plague across the world currently (Moss, 2014).

Anthroplogist Lucien Carr (1895, p. 12) illustrated the level of Appalachian agriculture from an early stage of development. He describes how in one military campaign a general ordered the destruction of 160,000 bushels of corn and 1,500 apple trees in 1779. According to William Bartram’s writing from the 1700s settlers mainly cultivated crops from Eurasia such as Wheat (Triticum sp.), Barley (Hordeum sp.), Flax (Linum sp.), Hemp (Cannabis sp.), Oats (Avena sativa), Plums (Prunus spp.), Cherries (Prunus spp.), Peaches (Prunus persica) and Raspberries (Rubus sp.) as well as native crops to the Americas such as Corn (Zea mays), Squash (Cucurbita spp.) and Beans (Phaseolus spp.) (1996, p. 442).

          Corn, beans, and squash known as the three sisters have continued to be important crops in Appalachia and for that matter the world up to modern times (Caduto & Bruchac, 1996; Dennee, 1995; Frank, 1991; Fussell, 1992; Johnson, 1997; Moore, 1988; G. L. Wilson, 2005). These crops are often supplemented with other major world crops such as Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum), Peruvian Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), Cabbages (Brassica oleracea), Collards (Brassica oleracea) and other brassicas. Peppers (Capsicum spp.), Lettuces (Lactuca sativa), and Onions (Allium spp.) have had secondary importance. Apples (Malus spp.) are the most important tree fruit of Appalachia and continue to persist in old farm fields and road sides.   

The Irish made up a large group of the early settlers that populated southern Appalachia. Though many people associate the Potato (Solanum tuberosum) with the Irish it is important to recognize its true origin in the Andes and specifically Peru. This one crop has a very rich literature too (Brush et al., 1981; Fabricant, 2000; Gomez, 2008; C. Graves, 2001; Jackson et al., 1980; Johnson, 1997; Ochoa, 2004, 2011; Pestalozzi, 2000; Reader, 2009; Rhoades, 1988; Zuckerman, 1998). Of course the Irish potato famine of the mid-1800s caused by the fungal blight (Phytopthera infestans) is a big reason that this connection endures (Bartoletti, 2005; Haas et al., 2009; Kelly, 2013).

Typical Appalachian and southern dishes in general include chow chow, sauerkraut, spoonbread, grits, apple stack cake, and pickles of various forms (Dabney, 1998; Farr, 1983, 1995; Lundy & Autry, 2016; Séguret, 2016; Shelton, 1964; Sohn, 2005). Tomato based vegetable soups were one of the favorite liquid meals of the region (Page & Wigginton, 1992). Methods of preservation include drying, canning, and root cellaring. Nixtamalization is an important process employed by natives and settlers. A traditional use of wood ash is to create lye that then can be used to make a product called hominy from corn. The process of making hominy turns corn into a complete protein (Katz & Morell, 2016).

Earl Core contended that Native Americans of the Southern Appalachians historically provided somewhere between one sixth to one half their food through agriculture (Core, 1967). Core considered 86 species as crops cultivated by Native Americans in North America. Of these only twelve were listed as grown in the SE U.S. These plants include Amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus), Sunflowers (Helianthus annus), Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosa), Corn (Zea mays), Beans (Phaseolus lunatus and P. vulgaris), Tobacco (Nicotiana rustica), Squash (Cucurbita pepo), and Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria). Seven of these nine plants are food crops of which corn was by far the most important. Most of these crops actually had their origination point in the desert southwest or further south in the Americas.

One is left to wonder whether the typical diet was healthier then as opposed to now despite the large amounts of fat and carbohydrates. Hippocrates was an early proponent of the idea that food can be medicine. Many people in Appalachia historically did not have good access to conventional medicines (Dabney, 1998). However, many of the edible wild plants of the Appalachian region also have medicinal uses (Banks, 2004; Duke & Foster, 2014; Howell, 2006; Light, 2018; Persons & Davis, 2014). If there was a significant overlap between wild edible plants consumed and plants with medicinal properties then the long life achieved by some older people during the 1800s and early 1900s might be better understood. Some books i examined list edible plants as medicinal only. The literature on the medicinal uses of plants is covered more in depth in the medicinal plants class on this website coming up again later this year.

Ancient American Plant Food Use

        The use of fire by Native Americans to promote certain tree crops has been supported by a number of studies (Abrams & Nowacki, 2008; Delcourt et al., 1998; Delcourt & Delcourt, 1998). Over 50 woody species have a tradition of use for food by Native Americans in eastern North America. The main tree crops include Oaks (Quercus spp.), Hickories (Carya spp.), Chestnuts (Castanea spp.), Pawpaw (Asimina triloba), Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) and Walnuts (Juglans spp.) while various other fruits have been employed to a lesser degree (Abrams & Nowacki, 2008). Many researchers long held the belief that the natives of Eastern North America (ENA) were foragers and hunters solely until the arrival of domesticated vegetables from Mexico and Central America in the last thousand years. Evidence now points to ENA as a center of plant domestication as well (N. Mueller et al., 2017; N. G. Mueller et al., 2019; Nordhaus, 2006). Similarly, evidence out of the Pacific Northwest points to the cultivation of tree crops by first nation’s people as well (N. Turner, 2011; N. J. Turner et al., 2013). My friend an colleague Zach Elfers is doing some fascinating research about the potential patterns of cultivation by indigenous people in the eastern USA which can be viewed at his website for the Nomad Seed Project. He also did a podcast with another mutual friend Kelly Moody about the idea of wild tending which incorporates such ideas

Regarding vegetables there is some confusion as to the potential simultaneous domestication of a type of squash (Cucurbita pepo) both in Central America and ENA. The natives of ENA are also believed to possibly have domesticated a type of Lambsquarters (Chenopodium berlandieri), Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), and Sumpweed (Iva annua). Indigenous tribes may also have cultivated types of Maygrass (Phalaris caroliniana) and Barley (Hordeum pusillum) as well (B. D. Smith, 1989). Recent research has confirmed the cultivation of Erect Knotweed (Polygonum erectum) (N. G. Mueller, 2018).

The use of DNA analysis has led to different insights. Some doubt remains about whether Chenopodium and Cucurbita in particular were the product of independent spontaneous cultivation in multiple areas or the arrival of knowledge from Mexico (Sanjur et al., 2002; H. Wilson, 1990). The origination in the Appalachian region of a type of sunflower cultivation has been supported through genetic testing (Harter et al., 2004).

The time scale for Appalachian plant domestications ranges over thousands of years but generally was much more recent than plant domestication in other parts of the world. Some domestication began in ENA by 2000 B.C. versus 8,000 B.C. in other areas of the world (B. D. Smith, 1998) Largely agrarian societies became established based on the four main crops mentioned above by 250 B.C. Nonetheless, Smith holds that tribes who lived almost exclusively from foraging persisted until the large scale move to corn as a staple crop somewhere between 800 and 1100 A.D (B. D. Smith, 1989). However, gathered crops may have contributed up to half of the diet of the Cherokee before contact with the Europeans (W. L. Anderson & Brown, 2006). However, some natives adopted many of the foodways from Europeans as early as the 1700s (Detwiler & VanDerwarker, 2006).

Modern Issues Concerning Cultivation of Food Plants

          Recent events have seen resurgence in interest in local foods in places all over the U.S. and other parts of the world. At the same time the average age of farmers is increasing and farmland is continuing to disappear. A new generation is hoping to farm the land. However, the price of land and requisite skills of growing food may often act as barriers to entry.

          Many methods have been developed in the last few decades to grow food more efficiently. Terms like “biointensive farming”,  “lasagna gardening”, “mini-farming” and “square foot gardening” have been coined to represent a move to more production in less space using less energy input (Bartholomew, 2013; Jeavons, 2017; Lanza, 1998; Markham, 2010). Edible landscaping is another concept that has been explored by several authors (Aranya, 2012; Bane, 2012; G. Bell, 2005; Bonsall, 2015; Creasy, 1982; Hagy, 1990; Hart, 1996; T. Hemenway, 2001, 2015; Holmgren, 2002; Jadrnicek & Jadrnicek, 2016; Judd, 2013; Kourik & Kane, 1986; Macnamara, 2012; Mars & Drucker, 2005; Nugent & Boniface, 2004; Shein, 2013; Trought, 2015).

One of the most holistic systems for farming in the modern age falls under the term of Permaculture. Permaculture was originally developed in Australia by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren (1979). The term arose from a contraction of the two words permanent and agriculture. Since that time permaculture has spread around the world and has been applied to any type of human created system including building, food, politics, waste disposal, energy generation, etc. Permaculture is more than anything a design philosophy used to create sustainable systems. Books have proliferated concerning the employment of permaculture principles (Aranya, 2012; Bane, 2012; G. Bell, 2005; Falk, 2013; T. Hemenway, 2001; Holmgren, 2002; Judd, 2013; Mars & Drucker, 2005; Mollison, 1979, 1997; Mollison & Slay, 1997; Nugent & Boniface, 2004; Shein, 2013; James R. Veteto & Lockyer, 2008).

Within Appalachia the ecovillages, Earthaven outside Black Mountain, NC and at Berea College in Berea, KY provide fine examples of permaculture in action with many other places in between. The ecovillage movement is also a worldwide phenomenon that is often coupled with the concept of Permaculture (Lockyer & Veteto, 2013). http://gen.ecovillage.org/.  

Permaculturalists often employ the use of perennial plants in an effort to reduce the energetic input sometimes necessary to maintain annuals (Toensmeier, 2007, 2013; Toensmeier & Herren, 2016) The preference for perennial plants leads to the development of woody species in what is called Agroforestry or Forest gardening (Bukowski et al., 2018; Crawford, 2010; Crawford & Aitken, 2014; Czolba & Frey, 2017; A. Ford & Nigh, 2015; Hart, 1996; T. Hemenway, 2001; Jacke & Toensmeier, 2005; McLain et al., 2012; Whitefield, 1998). Research on agroforestry in an Appalachian context has proceeded for most of the past century (F. Bell et al., 1977; Bendfeldt et al., 2001; Feldhake & Schumann, 2005; Otto, 1983; J Russell Smith, 1916; Joseph Russell Smith, 1950; G. Williams, 1979). Much of the push for Appalachian agroforestry focused on moving away from annual cultivation of hilly land in favor of planting trees. The main role of the trees at that time was seen as providing fodder for animals. The exploration of potential woody plants and the worldwide scope of permaculture has led to the development of a large temperate pool of potential tree species (Future, 2013; Lyle, 2006; Reich, 2008). Yet, more work still may be accomplished in encouraging the cultivation of underappreciated species (Krochmal & Krochmal, 1982).

Edible forestry can be applied more robustly to the urban environment in particular. i am pleased to say that in Asheville, the city recently has decided to plant as many edibles as possible on public lands especially greenways. i was part of the Asheville Tree Commission for three years and focused on edible planting. Our big focus right now is a flagship template we are calling the “Edible Mile” that will be placed along the French Broad river.


Two types of agrobiodiversity need to be considered. The first type concerns the number of species that are used in an agricultural system. The second type involves the number of varieties of any given species that are grown. Grower/consumer education and awareness is essential for acceptance and success in order to promote either type of agrobiodiversity. Communication of a means for tantalizing preparation is just as importance as knowledge of cultivation.

The number of crops employed by people in Australia, Europe, and North America and elsewhere in top economy countries is in sore need of augmentation. Industrialization has provided the means to use a small number of crops to provide a staggering array of different food forms, textures and tastes. However, this dependence on just a few crops has also led to many side effects common to monocultural systems such as tremendous pest pressure, prominence of food allergies and nutrient deficient diets (Colbin, 1986; Fallon, 1999; Kimbrell, 2002; Nestle, 2007).

True diet diversity will allow for the growth of many different crops that may naturally confuse pests, make more efficient use of fertility and allow for less dependence on synthetic chemicals through harvesting weeds rather than poisoning them. A rich palette of tastes and textures may be accessed by using a wide range of ingredients. Such options can only be approximated by the artificial chemicals and the techniques of modern conventional industrial agriculture. The tragedy of such an agriculture system has been exposed by a number of authors (Broad, 2016; Estabrook, 2011; Funes et al., 2002; Gottlieb et al., 2011; Iles, n.d.; J. Jordan et al., 2009; Kimbrell, 2002; Kleppel & Ikerd, 2014; Mazoyer & Roudart, 2006; Munzara, 2010; Pollan, 2006; Schlosser, 2002; Shepard, 2013; Toensmeier & Herren, 2016). Conversely authors have also written of many systems that embrace a diverse way of plant cultivation (Abelman, 2005; Darke & Tallamy, 2014; Gliessman & Engles, 2014; Shapiro & Harrisson, 2000; N. J. Turner et al., 2011; James R. Veteto & Skarbø, 2009).

Many crops that were treasured as far back as Roman and Greek times have fallen into ignominy in the last century or two. Some examples of favorite old time vegetables ripe for a comeback include Good King Henry (Chenopodium bonus henricus), Rocket (Eruca vesicaria syn Eruca sativa), Scorzonera (Scozonera hispanica) Salsify (Tragopogon porrifolius), Skirret (Sium sisarum) and Sea kale (Crambe maritima) (Halpin, 1978). 

Wild edible plants have already been covered in depth in the previous class. Nonetheless, a few very choice wild edibles that frequently occur in disturbed nutrient rich garden soils by their own volition bear mentioning. These wild edibles that grow on their own around intentionally cultivated crops include Lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) Pigweeds (Amaranthus spp.) Quickweed (Galinsoga quadriradiata syn Galinsoga ciliata) Purple archangel (Lamium purpureum), Cresses (Barbarea spp., Cardamine spp. Lepidium spp.), Burdock (Arctium spp.), Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and Wood Sorrel (Oxalis spp.). If you weed it, think about eating it!

Outside Asheville, NC Juliet Blankespoor has tried out several novel new crops for the local market. These include Toona (Toona sinensis), Rampion (Campanula rapunculoides) Tree mallow (Malva sylvestris), Musk mallow (Malva moschata), and Bloody dock (Rumex sanguinensis) (Blankespoor, 2009). Other novel crops that have been suggested include Celtuce (Lactuca sativa var asparagina), Ram’s horn (Proboscidea louisianica), Chayote (Sechium edule), Shungiku (Glebionis coronaria syn Chrysanthemum coronarium) and New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia tetragonioides syn Tetragonia expansa) (Halpin, 1978).  This same source also recommends Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) as a green which was traditionally practiced but is no longer recommended due to the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. My friend and colleague Eric Lewis is working hard to put into practice alternative agriculture methods with some of the plants mentioned above.


        The other type of agrobiodiversity rests upon millennia of historical breeding by untold amounts of people in almost every farming region of the world! For any given major crop hundreds if not thousands of varieties have been developed to suit local growing conditions and consumer tastes. These varieties are often called heirlooms because they have been handed down from generation to generation just like jewelry or other treasured family possessions. Anthropologist Jim Veteto has catalogued the prevalence of the heirloom vegetable/fruit tradition in western North Carolina and the Ozarks of Arkansas (J. Veteto, 2008; J. Veteto et al., 2011; James R. Veteto & Skarbø, 2009; James Robert Veteto, 2005, 2010).  His findings show that the vast majority of heirloom varieties still being saved are of beans. Beans are followed by tomatoes and then to a minor degree potatoes, corn and other crops. All of these vegetables of course represent Indigenous crops to the Americas. Potatoes also have a secondary connection to the Scots Irish heritage of many Appalachian settlers.

Hundreds of varieties of Apples are still growing as well (Tom Burford, 2013; Calhoun Jr., 2011; Jacobsen, 2014; Powell, 2014; J. Veteto et al., 2011). Big Horse Creek farm has many of those hundreds on their property alone. It remains to be seen what climate change will really mean to crops like Apples and various others. Understanding farmer’s perceptions of shifts will be crucial to navigate our way through the coming storm (Cebon et al., 1998; Hannah et al., 2013; Hertsgaard, 2011; Jones et al., 2005; Kolbert, 2007; Lengnick, 2015; McKibben, 2009; Nabhan & McKibben, 2013; Reed, 2018; S. E. Gill et al., 2007; Selvaraju et al., 2013; Skarbø & VanderMolen, 2016; James R. Veteto & Carlson, 2014; Wolverton et al., 2014; Ziska et al., 2011).

Carbon farming and biochar are some specific solutions being explored to help blunt the edge of the coming cataclysm (Bates, 2010; Scheub et al., 2016; Toensmeier & Herren, 2016).

One of the main places for maintaining agrobiodiversity in the United States is the Seeds Saver’s Exchange in Decorah Iowa. Here over 10,000 varieties of crops are preserved and grown on a rotational basis. This organization also publishes numerous resources cataloguing agrobiodiversity (D. O. Whealy, 2011; K. Whealy & Adelmann, 1986). They have helped publish a number of seed catalogs over the years. Many other publications list varieties of heirloom seeds that have been grown over time (Bronson, 2014; Fabricant, 2000; Gansneder, 2015; Watson, 1996; Weaver, 1997). Some crops like Tomatoes have their own special heirloom literature (Goldman, 2008; J. A. Jordan, 2015; Male, 1999).

Some authors have woven the story of the importance of maintaining agrobiodiversity along with the listing of varieties (Ausubel, 1994, 1994; Best, 2013; Fowler & Mooney, 1990; Nabhan, 1989). Anthropologist Virginia Nazarea is one of my all-time favorite writers on the subject of agrobiodiversity (V. Nazarea et al., 1998; V. D. Nazarea, 1997, 1999, 2014; V. D. Nazarea et al., 2013; Nazarea-Sandoval, 1995).

In just the last century much valuable labor has been lost to the conglomeration of plant growing interests and loss of seed saving ability on the local level. Many resources exist that may aid in the promulgation of seed saving knowledge (M. Anderson, 2013; Ashworth & Whealy, 2002; Bubel, 1988; Connolly & Lawn, 2011; Deppe, 2000; Gough & Moore-Gough, 2011; Heistinger, 2013; Rogers, 1990, 2012; Shirk, 2015; Zystro & Colley, 2015). The Carolina Farm Stewardship Association sponsors a seed saving program as well. Some seed companies that supply heirloom vegetables from the southern Appalachian region include Southern Exposure Seed Exchange, Appalachian Seeds and Sow True Seeds. Also in western North Carolina a vibrant network of seed exchanges occurs at the annual Organic Grower’s School, Permaculture Gathering and various events located in Watauga and Ashe counties. Fedco in Maine is a good source of heirloom seeds for New England in particular. Baker Creek seeds is another popular one with a lot of folks (Gettle & Sutherland, 2011). What are some heirloom seed sources from your area? Please share them with the group as this is an effort that we need to engage as many people as possible with. Look at the CFSA resource above and a map of seed saving groups around the world as a place to start.

Vegetable crops are not the only cultivated plants with a history of thousands of varieties. Big Horse Creek Farm as mentioned earlier and Moretz Orchards in western North Carolina represent good repositories of apple diversity. Big Horse Creek has hundreds of apple tree varieties that are for sale (Joyner & Joyner, 2009). Bill Moretz near Boone, NC offers the fruit of over 100 varieties through a CSA. Several publications also catalogue the fascinating array of apple varieties (Crawford & Agroforestry Research Trust, 1994; Hanson, 2005; Jacobsen, 2014; Manhart, 1995; Morgan & Richards, 2002; Neighbors, 1998; Phillips, 1998; Powell, 2014; Ragan, 2012; Reedy et al., 2009; Stilphen, 1993; Thornton, 2014; Yepsen, 1994). Plant researcher Lee Calhoun (1995; 2011) has written a book specifically about southern apples. Thomas Burford (1998; 2013) is an heirloom apple authority in the Charlottesville, VA area who has also written books about apple varieties. Apples are the most prolific fruit crop grown in the Appalachian region according to the 2007 Agriculture Census (USDA, 2009). Centers of production include Henderson County, NC, Western MD and PA and the area of New York that is close to Lake Erie. Orchards continue to be pushed up in Henderson county, in particular due to development pressure. The celebration and appreciation of unique apple varieties may serve to stimulate the protection of valuable farmland. Consumer awareness of the diversity available might lead to planting more apples that are tailored to suit at the homes of individuals within the Appalachian region. What are the major fruit crops of your area? Do you know of any special varieties? Share some with the group through your commentary. Here are a few of my favorite resources for growing fruits (Cuthbertson, 2007; Downing, 2009; Lyle, 2006; Phillips, 2012; Reich, 2008, 2012). The search for fruits and other plants through time has quite an interesting history as well (Gollner, 2013; Harris, 2015).

Economics of Appalachian Food Plant Cultivation and Use

        A regional branding for Appalachian products and likewise items from every bioregion offers an exciting opportunity to generate new business. They can rest on already established legacies of unique heritage, land forms, and infrastructure. The potential for the successful marketing of local brands rests on the shoulders of businesses, non-profits, and governmental agencies that can help develop a compelling case to the consumer.

General Business Protocols

Producers must think about markets first. A determination of where production will go and the potential demand for a particular product is essential. Undercapitalization and lack of market are two of the biggest mistakes in new business (Hall, 2005). The use of a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis is a classic tool in business design. All aspiring new businesses need a plan which at the very least includes a title page, executive summary, business description, marketing, management, operations, and financials.

Reading books and getting good advice are always a good idea for a start-up business. In the Asheville area organizations such as Appalachian Sustainable Agriculture Project (ASAP) , Mtn Biz Works, and business incubator services through AB Tech Community college all offer quality information at an affordable price for local producers. The Service Core of Retired Executives (SCORE) is a larger national organization offering affordable business consulting services.

Local Food

        Advantages of localized production are many. Local production keeps money circulating and multiplying in a community versus being siphoned out by big corporations from without (Cortese, 2011; Katz, 2006; Kirby et al., 2007, 2007; Meredith, 2010; Nabhan, 2002; Topalian & Ryder, 2010). Investing locally to increase the foodshed has been growing for awhile (Cortese, 2011; Hewitt, 2013; Tasch & Petrini, 2010).

Disadvantages of local food production are hard to come by. The potential for an initial lack of economies of scale comes to mind. Building brand acceptance and loyalty is a mountain that any new business concept has to climb. Luckily ASAP has done a lot of leg work in this regard.

ASAP has published a local food guide in Western North Carolina with increasingly larger print runs as well as distributing tens of thousands of highly visible bumper stickers promoting local food. Currently ASAP administers a label that is termed Appalachian Growntm. The Appalachian Grown program extends to at least 925 farms in 60 counties in Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia (ASAP, 2017). Qualification for using the label is free and only entails signing an agreement that states that the farm operation is within one of the chosen counties and only products from that certified farm will be sold under the label.

The Appalachian region technically contains 420 counties. Therefore, the growth potential for adding more counties under the Appalachian grown banner is large. According to ASAP studies, a very small percentage of food consumed in WNC and Appalachia in general is of local origin (ASAP, 2015; Kirby et al., 2007). Local food has the potential to generate hundreds of millions of dollars in new revenue and job increases with only a fractional rise in market share.

Ultimately, each Appalachian county might become known for sub specialties and production methods for a vast array of products including bitters, butters, ciders, culinary herbs, chutneys, cut flowers, dried fruits, edible flowers, jams, kombucha, jun, kvass, kraut, kimchi, meads, miso, pestos, pickles, soups, salves, specialty cheeses, spice blends, teas, tinctures and wines among other potential items.

Regional branding in Europe is a long held tradition with varying degrees of complexity. Regional brands may be as specific as to limit the type of soil, variety of crop, harvesting practices, manufacturing processes and labeling (Jenster et al., 2008). Laws in the U.S. vary by state (Pellechia, 2008). Ultimately a regional brand allows a product to distinguish itself in the marketplace in a special way. If a compelling story and association with high quality are attached to a regional brand then it may be able to flourish in a marketplace that is increasingly flooded with a multitude of choices (Rothbaum, 2007). The Slow Food Movement is an international phenomenon which started in Italy that is dedicated to encouraging culinary choices that celebrate regional specialties and craftsmanship in food preparation (Kingsolver et al., 2007; Petrini, 2003, 2015; Petrini et al., 2007; Petrini & Padovani, 2006; Petrini & Waters, 2010; Wright, 2013, 2013).

The association of Appalachia with high quality food products may help to quell the negative stereotypes that have typically been foisted on the region (T. R. Ford & Vance, 1967; Stoll, 2017; Vance, 2016; J. A. Williams, 2002). If Appalachian appellations were specifically organic or had an organic arm then the land would receive added ecological benefits and the brand could catch the wave of one of the fastest growing sectors of the food industry. Appalachian food branding may also feed into a growing wave of culinary tourism (Crowther, 2013; Finnis, 2012; Long, 2007; Muskat, 2007; Oliveira & Pereira, 2008). For instance the Asheville Chamber of Commerce has taken on the banner of Foodtopia as a label for its area. Tamarack in West Virginia is another good example of the branding of regional products.

Appalachia in general has a very rich tradition in foods mostly merged together through a Scots-Irish, Anglo, German tradition (Dabney, 1998; Sauceman, 2000; Shelton, 1964; Sohn, 1996).  Wonderful recipes like spoon bread and applestack cake can supplement already known items such as grits and bar-b-q.

Shared use facilities may allow for lower infrastructure cost for smaller producers. Blue Ridge Foods Ventures in Buncombe County, NC offers an example of cooperative spaces for developing and marketing local food products. Planners and public officials may help support the growth of such facilities. Many large commercial buildings sit empty due to a decrease in manufacturing. Why not put these buildings to use?

The growing market for local foods may allow a regional brand to flourish in even small markets by wresting away market share from dominant multi-national corporations. Local native American grape wines for instance while not popular nationally or internationally continue to increase in popularity in certain locations where they are grown (Pellechia, 2008). 

The Alcohol Business Case Study

        Grape wine has an 8,000 year history that can be traced back to the fertile crescent (Pellechia, 2008; Tamang & Kailasapathy, 2010; Waldo, 1963). Just a few grape species account for 10,000 different wine grape varieties. How many varieties can you name? Many wine varieties have names that are associated with the places they have traditionally been grown (i.e. Cabernet Sauvignon in Bordeaux) However, with the rise of the new world wine growing regions traditional varieties have been shipped to vineyards all over the globe. The specter of climate change threatens to rattle the closely studied and nuanced trade of wine manufacture known as oenology (Hannah et al., 2013; Jones et al., 2005; Welch-Devine et al., 2020).

Consumer purchases of wine are going down in most of Western Europe. Purchases are going up in the U.K., U.S.A. and Asia (Jenster et al., 2008). In the USA liquor sales are also going up and beer sales are going down (Rothbaum, 2007). However, specialty craft beers continue to increase in sales. The number of breweries has almost doubled to 8,000 in the last five years! Though many of these may be shuttered by the current pandemic. Wine is the largest consumed alcohol spirit in the U.S. (Kolpan, 2007). Due to economies of scale a winery selling less than 5,000 gallons a year may have a hard time producing a profit (Pellechia, 2008). However, with good demographic research even a small producer may find a market (The New Strategist, 2004).

Appelations in France have suffered because they are not able to list the type of grapes used in making their wine. Grape varietal name is of the biggest interest to modern consumers beyond the name of the vineyard or place grown (Kolpan, 2007). The French follow the concept of terroir that posits that the name of the place grown is more important than the variety grown there. The concept of terroir may bear some looking into even with its current issues (Baudar, 2016; Brown & Bradshaw, 2013; Heekin & Feiring, 2014; Jacobsen, 2010; Sommers, 2008; Trubek, 2009). Flexibility to the market is essential in any business. However, holding the specialness of a certain areas’ land characteristics or terroir has credence in regards to land preservation and stewardship. Italy and Spain have proven to be more flexible in their labeling standards and marketing in order to cater to an ever evolving and globalizing industry (Kolpan, 2007).

All in all the alcohol market is very volatile, subject to the whims of a capricious consumer base and difficult to navigate lawfully. Trends popularized by celebrities come and go. Alcohol producers would be well advised to keep a finger on the pulse of what is happening. Farmers who cannot turn production on a dime from large scale long term investments in plant material and infrastructure should do much market research before establishing new perennial crops. State rules around wine can be onerous especially in regards to distribution. States vary in their level of dryness regarding which counties allow the sale of alcohol.

Grape growers in North Carolina are trying hard to get a fledgling grape wine industry off the ground. i question the wisdom of this direction in a time when the market is inundated by many international grape wine growers and California dominates the vast majority of the domestic industry (Sumner et al., 2004). High quality grapes are notoriously hard to grow, especially in the hot humid south. Climate change might even put several wine regions out of business (Kolpan, 2007).

Why not create a novel wine business based on locally available already established products such a honey, apples, etc.? Many wine making books hint at the traditions of old when forms and flavors were much more diverse (S. F. Anderson & Hull, 1970; Baudar, 2018; Krause, 1982, 1996; Marie, 2008; Paterson, 1983; Schramm, 2003; Vargas & Gulling, 1999) .

Mead Business

      Making mead from purchased honey allows one to forgo the vagaries of agricultural production. Mead is a market that is relatively untapped compared to beer or wine. In North Carolina there are a couple handfuls of mead sellers currently versus hundreds of breweries. In the United States around a decade ago only 60 meaderies and around 20 wineries manufactured mead. Of this total only around 11 operated in the south according to www.gotmead.com. Now hundreds of meaderies have opened. Still compare this with over 8,700 wineries that exist in the USA. Most of the commercial meads that i have tried are sweet and fail to take advantage of the vastly different flavor profiles that this flexible format offers.

i have tasted hundreds of types of home brewed mead containing various combinations of close to 200 different species of plants and fungi. Medicinal meads, as well as meads mixed with fruit, are possible along with the traditional straight honey wine. This is almost a totally untapped market. In Asheville, NC mead making is an underground sensation shared enthusiastically by hundreds of home brewers and local consumers. The potential for a new Appalachian alcohol industry is limitless. Griffin Abee of  Alchemy Herbal Wine around Asheville, NC is the first to capture some of the potential for the type of mead i am talking about. Hierophant Meadery in Washington state is another.

Mead making is one of the most simple and straight forward types of alcohol to manufacture. Mead shares thousands of years of history along with wine and beer (Buhner, 1998; Gayre & Papazian, 1986; Kvilhaug, 2009; Minnick, 2018; Schramm, 2003; Vidrih & Hribar, 2016; Zimmerman, 2015). Operating costs for the production of mead were historically lower than for grape wines or even beer depending on the choice of ingredients. However, the difficulty with raising bees has increased the cost of the primary ingredient of honey. However, currently a premium is charged for meads on par with medium priced wines at about $15-20 per 750ml bottle minimum which may still lead to a decent profit margin. The growing market for local products can help support such a fledgling industry while building the strength of an Appalachian appellation and those from other bioregions. Such products might then also be sold to other markets and abroad which are largely bereft of these items.

Mead can be used to support the bee industry and bring attention to the current challenged plight of the honey bee. Bees have recently been subjected to attacks by a number of pests including Varroa (Varroa destructor) and Tracheal (Acarapis woodi) mites as well as the mysterious Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD)  and yet there is a movement to continue to keep bees as naturally as possible (Crowder & Harrell, 2012; Delaplane, 2007; C. Hemenway, 2013, 2017). My friend Tucka Saville is well on her way to mastering the art of natural bee keeping along with many others. Sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) honey represents a regional specialty that can be featured in the crafting of high quality mead products. A number of books have been written  about honey plants that support bees (Frey et al., 2016; Holm, 2017; H. B. Lovell, 1977; J. H. Lovell, 1999; Pellett, 1977).

The Case for Apples

     Apples have a rich history in Appalachia and all over the temperate world. They are a very versatile fruit that comes in thousands of varieties and a multitude of uses (Tom Burford, 2013; Calhoun Jr., 2011; Crawford & Agroforestry Research Trust, 1994; Hanson, 2005; Jacobsen, 2014; Manhart, 1995; Morgan & Richards, 2002; Neighbors, 1998; Ragan, 2012; Stilphen, 1993; Yepsen, 1994). According to a recent agricultural census Henderson County, North Carolina is the biggest apple producing area in the south (USDA, 2009). Currently orchards are disappearing from this area at an alarming rate. Producers used to rely on big processors for most of their sales and were poorly positioned when these corporations left (J. D. Obermiller, personal communication, 2003).  Producing first quality apples is difficult, chemical intensive and costly in the region. i advocate a growth in value added processed products that do not depend so heavily on perfect aesthetics. These might include apple butter, apple sauce, jelly, cider, dried apples, mead and wine. Apple wood chips for b-b-q from prunings are another value added example. More jobs can be created and more revenue can be generated by processing the apples into a more desirable, shelf stable, and profitable product. My personal experience shows that apple wine and mead employ the use of a minimal amount of sugars and labor coupled with inexpensive yeast to effectively multiply the potential sale price of apple juice by a factor of 10! Apple jelly has a similar ratio of potential profit. However, this production would need to be taken on in house by growers as the going wholesale rate of apples to large scale manufacturers is a pittance.

We live in a day and age when almost everything is branded and marketed in some way or another. The Appalachian region in effect has been branded for over one hundred years now. Not all the connotations related to this label have been positive. The development of high quality and unique food products identified as from the Appalachian region has the potential for a vast array of positive benefits economically, socially and environmentally. Smart business development will be necessary. Multiple stakeholders need to be involved. Rules and regulations must be navigated. Farmers must be informed and trained in potential new industries. Food businesses also only scratch the surface of economic development.


Food is fundamental, right after air and water. i have used Appalachia as a lens to view local food culture on a bioregional basis. However, the lessons from this class can be extrapolated to anywhere in the world. We need to reclaim our food sovereignty wherever possible!

For the next class we will cover Poisonous plants and it will be posted around June 27th

     Below are items to think about/comment on. Please write me directly at marc@botanyeveryday.com or leave information in the commentary under this class. i would really love to hear what you have to say!!!

In the meantime…

-Choose a novel food plant that you have never grown and plant some even in a container if need be.

-Identify an heirloom variety of a food crop from where you live and share the story with us in the comment section or in the Facebook group.

-Go to the grocery store and purchase a novel food you are unfamiliar with. Do some research and determine where it is originally from and how it can be deliciously prepared.

- Read the entries near the back of Botany in a Day about phytochemistry in preparation for the next class.

-Leave a comment here or on Facebook about the special food crops or varieties of your area.

- Attend a workshop or a class and write up a brief description of plants or information learned.

- Continue to make a photo album of a certain nature spot as the seasons progress.

- Post any clear photos of question plants to Facebook, in the comments below or send in an email.

Praises to all that have donated to the cause. i encourage everyone to donate as they are able financially, commentarily, or energetically... Your contributions greatly help me continue this crucial work of ethnobotanical research and education. Please let me know your thoughts in general and anyway i can help this class serve you best.

Thanks, marc

Literature Cited

Abelman, M. (2005). Fields of Plenty. Chronicle Books.

Abrams, M. D., & Nowacki, G. J. (2008). Native Americans as Active and Passive Promoters of Mast and Fruit Trees in the eastern USA. The Holocene, 18(7), 1123–1137. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683608095581

Anderson, M. (2013). Seed Saving for the Organic Gardener. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Anderson, S. F., & Hull, R. (1970). The Art of Making Wine. Longman.

Anderson, W. L., & Brown, J. L. (2006). Native American agriculture. In R. Abramson & J. Haskell (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Appalachia (pp. 428–429). University of Tennessee Press.

Aranya. (2012). Permaculture Design: A Step-by-Step Guide. Permanent Publications.

Arcury, T. A. (1989). Greater Appalachian Regional Databank (GARD): Agricultural Change in the Mountain South at the Turn Of the Century. Appalachian Center, University of Kentucky.

ASAP. (2015). Agriculture and Food System Trends in the Appalachian Region: 2007—2012. Appalachian Regional Comission.

ASAP. (2017). Appalachian Grown Producer Survey Report. Local Food Research Center. http://asapconnections.org/local-food-research-center/reports

Ashworth, S., & Whealy, K. (2002). Seed to Seed: Seed Saving and Growing Techniques for Vegetable Gardeners (2nd ed.). Seed Savers Exchange.

Ausubel, K. (1994). Seeds of Change: The Living Treasure: The Passionate Story of the Growing Movement to Restore Biodiversity and Revolutionize the Way We Think About (1st paperback ed). Harpercollins.

Bane, P. (2012). The Permaculture Handbook: Garden Farming for Town and Country (Original). New Society Publishers.

Banks, W. H. (2004). Plants of the Cherokee: Medicinal, Edible, and Useful Plants of the Eastern Cherokee Indians / Kemp, Steve. Great Smoky Mountains Association.

Bartholomew, M. (2013). All New Square Foot Gardening II: The Revolutionary Way to Grow More in Less Space (2nd ed.). Cool Springs Press.

Bartoletti, S. C. (2005). Black Potatoes: The Story of the Great Irish Famine, 1845-1850. HMH Books for Young Readers.

Bartram, W. (1996). William Bartram: Travels and Other Writings (1st ed.). Library of America.

Bates, A. (2010). The Biochar Solution: Carbon Farming and Climate Change. New Society Publishers.

Baudar, P. (2016). The New Wildcrafted Cuisine: Exploring the Exotic Gastronomy of Local Terroir. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Baudar, P. (2018). The Wildcrafting Brewer: Creating Unique Drinks and Boozy Concoctions from Nature’s Ingredients. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Bell, F., Pohlman, J., & Williams, G. (1977). Tree Crops for Small Farms in Appalachia: Preliminary Proposal for Research. Appalachian Regional Office, International Tree Crops Institute U.S.A., Inc.

Bell, G. (2005). The Permaculture Way: Practical Steps to Create a Self-Sustaining World. Chelsea Green Pub. Co.

Bendfeldt, E., Feldhake, C., & Burger, J. (2001). Establishing trees in an Appalachian silvopasture: Response to shelters, grass control, mulch, and fertilization. Agroforestry Systems, 53(3), 291–295. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1013367224860

Best, B. F. (2013). Saving seeds, preserving taste heirloom seed savers in Appalachia. Ohio University Press. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10672849

Blankespoor, J. (2009). Uncommon Plants for the Nursery Trade [Interview]. www.chestnutherbs.com

Bonsall, W. (2015). Will Bonsall’s Essential Guide to Radical, Self-Reliant Gardening: Innovative Techniques for Growing Vegetables, Grains, and Perennial Food Crops with Minimal Fossil Fuel and Animal Inputs. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Broad, G. (2016). More Than Just Food: Food Justice and Community Change. University of California Press.

Bronson, M. (2014). Survival Seeds: The Heirloom Seed Saving Handbook. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Brown, P., & Bradshaw, B. (2013). World’s Best Ciders Taste, Tradition and Terroir, from Somereset to Seattle. Sterling Pub Co Inc.

Brush, S. B., Carney, H. J., & Humán, Z. (1981). Dynamics of Andean potato agriculture. Economic Botany, 35(1), 70–88. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02859217

Bubel, N. (1988). The New Seed-Starters Handbook. Rodale Press.

Buhner, S. H. (1998). Sacred and Herbal Healing Beers: The Secrets of Ancient Fermentation. Siris Books.

Bukowski, C., Munsell, J., & Joy, L. (2018). The Community Food Forest Handbook: How to Plan, Organize, and Nurture Edible Gathering Places. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Burford, Thomas. (1998). Apples: A Catalog of International Varieties (Rev.). Burford Brothers.

Burford, Tom. (2013). Apples of North America: Exceptional varieties for gardeners, growers and cooks. Timber Press.

Caduto, M. J., & Bruchac, J. (1996). Native American Gardening: Stories, Projects, and Recipes for Families. Fulcrum Publishing.

Calhoun, C. L. (1995). Old Southern Apples. McDonald & Woodward Pub. Co.

Calhoun Jr., C. L. (2011). Old Southern Apples, Revised & Expanded: A Comprehensive History and Description of Varieties for Collectors, Growers, and Fruit Enthusiasts (Rev Exp). Chelsea Green Publishing.

Carr, L., & Society, A. A. (1895). The Food of Certain American Indians and Their Methods of Preparing It.

Cebon, P., Dahinden, U., Davies, H., Imboden, D., Jaeger, C. C., Jasanoff, S., & Haas, P. M. (Eds.). (1998). Views from the Alps: Regional Perspectives on Climate Change. The MIT Press.

Colbin, A. (1986). Food and Healing (1st, 7th printing ed.). Ballantine Books.

Coltrane, R. T. (1965). An Economic Survey of the Appalachian Region, with Special Reference to Agriculture. Economic Research Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.

Connolly, B., & Lawn, C. R. (2011). NOFA Guides Set: Organic Seed Production and Saving: The Wisdom of Plant Heritage (Rev). Chelsea Green Publishing.

Core, E. (1967). Ethnobotany of the Southern Appalachian Aborigines. Economic Botany, 21(3), 199–214. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02860370

Cortese, A. (2011). Locavesting: The Revolution in Local Investing and How to Profit From It. Wiley.

Crawford, M. (2010). Creating a Forest Garden: Working with Nature to Grow Edible Crops. Green Books.

Crawford, M., & Agroforestry Research Trust. (1994). Directory of Apple Cultivars. Agroforestry Research Trust.

Crawford, M., & Aitken, C. (2014). Food from Your Forest Garden: How to Harvest, Cook and Preserve Your Forest Garden Produce. UIT Cambridge Ltd.

Creasy, R. (1982). The Complete Book of Edible Landscaping: Home Landscaping with Food-Bearing Plants and Resource-Saving Techniques. Sierra Club Books.

Crowder, L., & Harrell, H. (2012). Top-Bar Beekeeping: Organic Practices for Honeybee Health. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Crowther, G. (2013). Eating Culture: An Anthropological Guide to Food. University of Toronto Press, Higher Education Division.

Cuthbertson, Y. (2007). Success with Organic Fruit. Guild of Master Craftsman.

Czolba, M., & Frey, D. (2017). The Food Forest Handbook: Design and Manage a Home-Scale Perennial Polyculture Garden. New Society Publishers.

Dabney, J. E. (1998). Smokehouse Ham, Spoon Bread & Scuppernong Wine: The Folklore and Art of Southern Appalachian Cooking. Cumberland House.

Darke, R., & Tallamy, D. W. (2014). The Living Landscape: Designing for Beauty and Biodiversity in the Home Garden.

Delaplane, K. (2007). First Lessons in Beekeeping. Dadant and Sons.

Delcourt, P. A., & Delcourt, H. R. (1998). The Influence of Prehistoric Human-Set Fires on Oak-Chestnut Forests in the Southern Appalachians. Castanea, 63(3), 337–345. https://doi.org/10.2307/4033982

Delcourt, P. A., Delcourt, H. R., Ison, C. R., Sharp, W. E., & Gremillion, K. J. (1998). Prehistoric Human Use of Fire, the Eastern Agricultural Complex, and Appalachian Oak-Chestnut Forests: Paleoecology of Cliff Palace Pond, Kentucky. American Antiquity, 63(2), 263–278. https://doi.org/10.2307/2694697

Dennee, J. (1995). In the Three Sisters Garden: Native American Traditions Myths and Culture Around the Theme of the Garden. Common Roots Press.

Deppe, C. (2000). Breed Your Own Vegetable Varieties: The Gardener’s and Farmer’s Guide to Plant Breeding and Seed Saving (2nd ed.). Chelsea Green Publishing.

Detwiler, K. R., & VanDerwarker, A. M. (2006). Native American foodways. In R. Abramson & J. Haskell (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Appalachia (pp. 944–946). University of Tennessee Press.

Downing, A. J. (2009). The fruits and fruit trees of America: The culture, propagation, and management. Applewood Books.

Duke, J. A., & Foster, S. (2014). Peterson Field Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs of Eastern and Central North America (3rd Ed). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Estabrook, B. (2011). Tomatoland: How Modern Industrial Agriculture Destroyed Our Most Alluring Fruit (First Edition). Andrews McMeel Publishing.

Fabricant, F. (2000). The Great Potato Book. Ten Speed Press.

Facciola, S. (1998). Cornucopia II: A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications.

Falk, B. (2013). The Resilient Farm and Homestead: An Innovative Permaculture and Whole Systems Design Approach. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Fallon, S. (1999). Nourishing Traditions: The Cookbook that Challenges Politically Correct Nutrition and the Diet Dictocrats (Revised and Updated 2nd). NewTrends Publishing.

Farr, S. S. (1983). More Than Moonshine: Appalachian Recipes and Recollections. University of Pittsburgh Press.

Farr, S. S. (1995). Table Talk: Appalachian Meals and Memories. University of Pittsburgh Press.

Feldhake, C., & Schumann, C. (2005). Tree Establishment for a Temperate Agro-forest in Central Appalachia, USA. Agroforestry Systems, 65(3), 187–195. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-005-0505-x

Fern, K. (2000). Plants for a Future: Edible & Useful Plants for a Healthier World (2nd ed.). Permanent Publications ; Kutztown, PA : Distributed in the USA by Rodale Institute Bookstore.

Finnis, E. (2012). Reimagining Marginalized Foods: Global Processes, Local Places. University of Arizona Press.

Ford, A., & Nigh, R. (2015). Maya Forest Garden: Eight Millennia of Sustainable Cultivation of the Tropical Woodlands. Left Coast Press.

Ford, T. R., & Vance, R. B. (1967). The southern Appalachian region: A survey. University of Kentucky Press.

Fowler, C., & Mooney, P. R. (1990). Shattering: Food, Politics, and the Loss of Genetic Diversity. University of Arizona Press.

Frank, L. E. (1991). Foods of the Southwest Indian nations: Traditional & contemporary Native American recipes. Ten Speed Press.

Frey, K., LeBuhn, G., & Lindell, L. (2016). The Bee-Friendly Garden: Design an Abundant, Flower-Filled Yard that Nurtures Bees and Supports Biodiversity. Ten Speed Press.

Funes, F., Garcia, L., Bourque, M., Perez, N., & Rosset, P. (2002). Sustainable Agriculture and Resistance. Food First Books.

Fussell, B. H. (1992). The story of corn. Knopf.

Future, P. F. A. (2013). Edible Trees: A practical and inspirational guide from Plants For A Future on how to grow and harvest trees with edible and other useful produce. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Gansneder, D. (2015). Heirloom Seed Saving Handbook: Your Personal Survival Seed Bank.

Gayre, R., & Papazian, C. (1986). Wassail! in mazers of mead: The intriguing history of the beverage of kings. Brewers Pub.

Gettle, J. and E., & Sutherland, M. (2011). The Heirloom Life Gardener: The Baker Creek Way of Growing Your Own Food Easily and Naturally. Hachette Books.

Gliessman, S. R., & Engles, E. W., Ph D. (2014). Agroecology: The Ecology of Sustainable Food Systems (3 edition). Crc Pr I Llc.

Goldman, A. (2008). The Heirloom Tomato: From Garden to Table: Recipes, Portraits, and History of the World’s Most Beautiful Fruit. Bloomsbury USA.

Gollner, A. L. (2013). The Fruit Hunters: A Story of Nature, Adventure, Commerce, and Obsession. Scribner.

Gomez, R. (2008). Native Potatoes of Peru: Catalogue of Varieties and Culinariy Uses. Ministry Of Agriculture Peru.

Gottlieb, R., Norgaard, K. M., ReedSr, R., Horn, C. V., Green, J. J., Green, E. M., Kleiner, A. M., Minkoff-Zern, L.-A., Peluso, N., Sowerwine, J., Getz, C., McClintock, N., Brown, S., Morales, A., McCutcheon, P., Mares, T. M., Peña, D. G., Harper, A. B., McEntee, J., … Holt-Giménez, E. (2011). Cultivating Food Justice: Race, Class, and Sustainability (A. H. Alkon & J. Agyeman, Eds.). The MIT Press.

Gough, R. E., & Moore-Gough, C. (2011). The Complete Guide to Saving Seeds: 322 Vegetables, Herbs, Fruits, Flowers, Trees, and Shrubs. Storey Publishing, LLC.

Gragson, T. L., & Bolstad, P. V. (2006). Land Use Legacies and the Future of Southern Appalachia. Society & Natural Resources, 19(2), 175–190. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920500394857

Graves, C. (2001). The Potato Treasure of the Andes: From Agriculture to Culture. International Potato Center.

Graves, G. H. (1988). A Selected Bibliography on Agriculture and Modernization Relating to the Appalachian South (Rev. ed). G.H. Graves.

Haas, B. J., Kamoun, S., Zody, M. C., Jiang, R. H. Y., Handsaker, R. E., Cano, L. M., Grabherr, M., Kodira, C. D., Raffaele, S., Torto-Alalibo, T., Bozkurt, T. O., Ah-Fong, A. M. V., Alvarado, L., Anderson, V. L., Armstrong, M. R., Avrova, A., Baxter, L., Beynon, J., Boevink, P. C., … Nusbaum, C. (2009). Genome sequence and analysis of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Nature, 461(7262), 393–398. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08358

Hagy, F. (1990). The Practical Garden of Eden: Beautiful Landscaping With Fruits and Vegetables. Overlook Press.

Hall, S. F. (2005). From Kitchen to Market: Selling your Gourmet Food Specialty (4th Ed.). Dearborn Trade Publishing.

Halpin, A. M. (Ed.). (1978). Unusual Vegetables: Something New for This Year’s Garden. Rodale Press.

Hannah, L., Roehrdanz, P. R., Ikegami, M., Shepard, A. V., Shaw, M. R., Tabor, G., Zhi, L., Marquet, P. A., & Hijmans, R. J. (2013). Climate change, wine, and conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(17), 6907–6912. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1210127110

Hanson, B. (2005). The Best Apples to Buy and Grow. Brooklyn Botanic Garden.

Harris, A. (2015). Fruits of Eden: David Fairchild and America’s Plant Hunters. University Press of Florida.

Hart, R. A. de J. (Robert A. de J. (1996). Forest Gardening: Cultivating an Edible Landscape. Chelsea Green Pub. Co.

Harter, A. V., Gardner, K. A., Falush, D., Lentz, D. L., Bye, R. A., & Rieseberg, L. H. (2004). Origin of Extant Domesticated Sunflowers in Eastern North America. Nature, 430(6996), 201–205. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02710

Heekin, D., & Feiring, A. (2014). An Unlikely Vineyard: The Education of a Farmer and Her Quest for Terroir. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Heistinger, A. (2013). The Manual of Seed Saving: Harvesting, Storing, and Sowing Techniques for Vegetables, Herbs, and Fruits (I. Miller, Trans.). Timber Press.

Hemenway, C. (2013). The Thinking Beekeeper: A Guide to Natural Beekeeping in Top Bar Hives. New Society Publishers.

Hemenway, C. (2017). Advanced Top Bar Beekeeping: Next Steps for the Thinking Beekeeper. New Society Publishers.

Hemenway, T. (2001). Gaia’s Garden: A Guide to Home-Scale Permaculture. Chelsea Green Pub. Co.

Hemenway, T. (2015). The Permaculture City: Regenerative Design for Urban, Suburban, and Town Resilience. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Hertsgaard, M. (2011). Hot: Living Through the Next Fifty Years on Earth. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Hewitt, C. P. (2013). Financing Our Foodshed: Growing Local Food with Slow Money. New Society Publishers.

Hilliard, S. B. (1972). Hog Meat and Hoecake: Food Supply in the Old South, 1840-1860. Southern Illinois University Press.

Holm, H. N. (2017). Bees: An Identification and Native Plant Forage Guide. Pollination Press LLC.

Holmgren, D. (2002). Permaculture: Principles & Pathways Beyond Sustainability. Holmgren Design Services.

Howell, P. K. (2006). Medicinal Plants of the Southern Appalachians. Botanologos Books.

Iles, A. (n.d.). Learning in Sustainable Agriculture: Food Miles and Missing Objects [Text]. Retrieved May 6, 2008, from http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/whp/ev/2005/00000014/00000002/art00002

Jacke, D., & Toensmeier, E. (2005). Edible Forest Gardens: Ecological Vision and Theory for Temperate Climate Permaculture (Vol. 1). Chelsea Green.

Jackson, M. T., Hawkes, J. G., & Rowe, P. R. (1980). An ethnobotanical field study of primitive potato varieties in Peru. Euphytica, 29(1), 107–113. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00037254

Jacobsen, R. (2010). American Terroir: Savoring the Flavors of Our Woods, Waters, and Fields. Bloomsbury USA.

Jacobsen, R. (2014). Apples of Uncommon Character: Heirlooms, Modern Classics, and Little-Known Wonders. Bloomsbury USA.

Jadrnicek, S., & Jadrnicek, S. (2016). The Bio-Integrated Farm: A Revolutionary Permaculture-Based System Using Greenhouses, Ponds, Compost Piles, Aquaponics, Chickens, and More. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Jeavons, J. (2017). How to Grow More Vegetables, Ninth Edition: (And Fruits, Nuts, Berries, Grains, and Other Crops) Than You Ever Thought Possible on Less Land with Less Water Than You Can Imagine (9 Revised edition). Ten Speed Press.

Jenster, P. V., Smith, D. E., Mitry, D. J., & Jenster, L. V. (2008). The Business of Wine: A Global Perspective. Copenhagen Business School Press.

Johnson, S. A. (1997). Tomatoes, Potatoes, Corn, and Beans: How the Foods of the Americas Changed Eating Around the World. Atheneum.

Jones, G. V., White, M. A., Cooper, O. R., & Storchmann, K. (2005). Climate Change and Global Wine Quality. Climatic Change, 73(3), 319–343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-005-4704-2

Jordan, J. A. (2015). Edible Memory: The Lure of Heirloom Tomatoes and Other Forgotten Foods. University Of Chicago Press.

Jordan, J., Pennick, E., Hill, W., & Zabawa, R. (Eds.). (2009). Land and Power: Sustainable Agriculture and African Americans. SARE Outreach.

Joyner, R., & Joyner, S. (2009). Big Horse Creek Farm. Big Horse Creek Farm. http://www.bighorsecreekfarm.com/default.htm

Judd, M. (2013). Edible Landscaping with a Permaculture Twist: How to Have Your Yard and Eat It Too. Ecologia.

Katz, S. E. (2006). The Revolution Will Not Be Microwaved: Inside America’s Underground Food Movements (First Edition edition). Chelsea Green Publishing.

Katz, S. E., & Morell, S. F. (2016). Wild Fermentation: The Flavor, Nutrition, and Craft of Live-Culture Foods (2nd ed.). Chelsea Green Publishing.

Kelly, J. (2013). The Graves Are Walking: The Great Famine and the Saga of the Irish People (Reprint edition). Picador.

Kimbrell, A. (2002). The Fatal Harvest Reader: The Tragedy of Industrial Agriculture. Island Press.

Kingsolver, Barbara. K., Hopp, S. L., & Kingsolver, C. (2007). Animal, Vegetable, Miracle: A Year of Food Life (1st ed.). HarperCollins Publishers.

Kirby, L. D., Jackson, C., & Perrett, A. (2007). Growing Local: Implications for Western North Carolina. Appalachian Sustainable Agriculture Project.

Kleppel, G., & Ikerd, J. (2014). The Emergent Agriculture: Farming, Sustainability and the Return of the Local Economy. New Society Publishers.

Kolbert, E. (2007). Field notes from a catastrophe: Man, nature, and climate change. Bloomsbury Pub.

Kolpan, S. (2007). Wine Business. In Encyclopedia of the Food and Drink Industries: The Business of Food (p. 439). Greenwood Press.

Kourik, R., & Kane, M. (1986). Designing and Maintaining Your Edible Landscape Naturally. Santa Rosa, CA : Metamorphic Press ; Emmaus, PA : Distribution, Rodale Press.

Krause, S. A. (1982). Wine from the Wilds: Using Wild Trees, Herbs, and Flowers in Home Winemaking. Stackpole Books.

Krause, S. A. (1996). Drinks from the Wilds. Stackpole Books.

Krochmal, A., & Krochmal, C. (1982). Uncultivated Nuts of the United States. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service.

Kvilhaug, M. (2009). The Maiden with the mead: A goddess of initiation in Old Norse mythology? VDM Verlag.

Lanza, P. (1998). Lasagna Gardening: A New Layering System for Bountiful Gardens: No Digging, No Tilling, No Weeding, No Kidding! Rodale Books.

Lengnick, L. (2015). Resilient Agriculture: Cultivating Food Systems for a Changing Climate (1st Edition edition). New Society Publishers.

Light, P. (2018). Southern Folk Medicine: Healing Traditions from the Appalachian Fields and Forests. North Atlantic Books.

Lockyer, J., & Veteto, J. R. (Eds.). (2013). Environmental Anthropology Engaging Ecotopia: Bioregionalism, Permaculture, and Ecovillages. Berghahn Books.

Long, L. (2007). Culinary Tourism. In G. Allen & K. Albala (Eds.), Encyclopedia of the Food and Drinks Industry: The Business of Food (p. 439). Greenwood Press.

Lovell, H. B. (1977). Honey Plants (L. R. Goltz, Ed.; Rev ed.). Gleanings in Bee Culture.

Lovell, J. H. (1999). Honey Plants of North America. A I Root Co.

Lundy, R., & Autry, J. (2016). Victuals: An Appalachian Journey, with Recipes. Clarkson Potter.

Lyle, S. (2006). Fruit and Nuts: A Comprehensive Guide to the Cultivation, Uses and Health Benefits of over 300 Food-Producing Plants. Timber Press, Inc.

Macnamara, L. (2012). People & Permaculture: Caring and Designing for Ourselves, Each Other and the Planet. Permanent Publications.

Male, C. J. (1999). Smith & Hawken: 100 Heirloom Tomatoes for the American Garden. Workman Publishing Company.

Manhart, W. (1995). Apples for the twenty-first century. North American Tree Co.

Marie, D. (2008). Wild Wines: Creating Organic Wines from Nature’s Garden. Square One Publishers.

Markham, B. L. (2010). Mini Farming: Self-Sufficiency on 1/4 Acre. Skyhorse Publishing.

Mars, R., & Drucker, M. (2005). The Basics Of Permaculture Design. Chelsea Green Pub. Co.

Mazoyer, M., & Roudart, L. (2006). A History of World Agriculture: From the Neolithic Age to the Current Crisis. Monthly Review Press.

McKibben, B. (2009). Gaia in Turmoil: Climate Change, Biodepletion, and Earth Ethics in an Age of Crisis (E. Crist & H. B. Rinker, Eds.). The MIT Press.

McLain, R., Poe, M., Hurley, P. T., Lecompte-Mastenbrook, J., & Emery, M. R. (2012). Producing edible landscapes in Seattle’s urban forest. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 11(2), 187–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2011.12.002

Meredith, L. (2010). The Locavore’s Handbook: The Busy Person’s Guide to Eating Local on a Budget. Lyons Press.

Minnick, F. (2018). Mead: The Libations, Legends, and Lore of History’s Oldest Drink. Running Press Adult.

Mollison, B. (1979). Permaculture Two. Tagari Publications.

Mollison, B. (1997). Introduction to Permaculture (Revised). Tagari Publications.

Mollison, B., & Slay, R. M. (1997). Permaculture: A Designers’ Manual. Tagari Publications.

Moore, W. (1988). Mountain Voices: A Legacy of the Blue Ridge and Great Smokies (3rd ed.). John F. Blair.

Morgan, J., & Richards, A. (2002). The New Book of Apples (Rev. and updated ed). Ebury.

Moss, M. (2014). Salt Sugar Fat: How the Food Giants Hooked Us. Random House Trade Paperbacks.

Mueller, N., Fritz, G., Patton, P., Carmody, S., & Horton, E. (2017). Growing the lost crops of eastern North America’s original agricultural system. Nature Plants, 3, 6. https://doi.org/10.1038/nplants.2017.92

Mueller, N. G. (2018). The earliest occurrence of a newly described domesticate in Eastern North America: Adena/Hopewell communities and agricultural innovation. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 49, 39–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaa.2017.12.001

Mueller, N. G., White, A., & Szilagyi, P. (2019). Experimental Cultivation of Eastern North America’s Lost Crops: Insights into Agricultural Practice and Yield Potential. Journal of Ethnobiology, 39(4), 549–566. https://doi.org/10.2993/0278-0771-39.4.549

Munzara, M. A. (2010). Biopiracy of Local Seed Varieties: Implications of intellectual property rights on smallholder farmers in Southern Africa. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.

Muskat, A. (2007). Wild Mushrooms: A Taste of Enchantment (4th ed). Self-published.

Nabhan, G. P. (1989). Enduring Seeds: Native American Agriculture and Wild Plant Conservation. North Point Press.

Nabhan, G. P. (2002). Coming Home to Eat: The Pleasures and Politics of Local Foods (1st ed). W.W. Norton.

Nabhan, G. P., & McKibben, B. (2013). Growing Food in a Hotter, Drier Land: Lessons from Desert Farmers on Adapting to Climate Uncertainty. Chelsea Green Publishing.

National Geographic Society (United States). (2008). Edible: An Illustrated Guide to the World’s Food Plants. National Geographic Society.

Nazarea, V. D. (1997). Yesterday’s ways, tomorrow’s treasures: Heirloom plants and memory banking. Kendall/Hunt Pub.

Nazarea, V. D. (1999). Ethnoecology: Situated Knowledge/Located Lives. University of Arizona Press.

Nazarea, V. D. (2014). Heirloom Seeds and Their Keepers: Marginality and Memory in the Conservation of Biological Diversity. University of Arizona Press.

Nazarea, V. D., Rhoades, R. E., & Andrews-Swann, J. (Eds.). (2013). Seeds of Resistance, Seeds of Hope: Place and Agency in the Conservation of Biodiversity (2 edition). University of Arizona Press.

Nazarea, V., Rhoades, R., Bontoyan, E., & Flora, G. (1998). Defining Indicators Which Make Sense to Local People: Intra-Cultural Variation in Perceptions of Natural Resources. Human Organization, 57(2), 159–170. https://doi.org/10.17730/humo.57.2.n8844vw5085w71x7

Nazarea-Sandoval, V. D. (1995). Local Knowledge and Agricultural Decision Making in the Philippines: Class, Gender, and Resistance (1 edition). Cornell University Press.

Neighbors, J. L. (1998). Apples: Collecting old southern varieties. Joyce Neighbors.

Nestle, M. (2007). What to Eat. North Point Press.

Nordhaus, J. J. (2006). Sassafras. In R. Abramson & J. Haskell (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Appalachia (1st ed, p. 953). University of Tennessee Press; wncln.wncln.org Library Catalog.

Nugent, J., & Boniface, J. (2004). Permaculture Plants: A Selection (2nd ed.). Permanent Publications; distributed in the USA by Chelsea Green Pub. Co.

Obermiller, J. D. (2003). Discussion on the WNC Apple Business [Personal communication].

Ochoa, C. M. (2004). The Potatoes of South America: Peru. The wild species. International Potato Center.

Ochoa, C. M. (2011). The Potatoes of South America: Bolivia (D. Ugent, Trans.). Cambridge University Press.

Oliveira, P., & Pereira, P. T. (2008). Who Values What in a Tourism Destination? The Case of Madeira Island. Tourism Economics, 14(1), 155–168. https://doi.org/10.5367/000000008783554758

Otto, J. S. (1983). The Decline of Forest Farming in Southern Appalachia. Journal of Forest History, 27(1), 18–27. JSTOR. https://doi.org/10.2307/4004858

Page, L. G., & Wigginton, E. (Eds.). (1992). The Foxfire Book of Appalachian Cookery. University of North Carolina Press.

Paterson, W. (1983). Country Wines & Cordials: Wild Plant & Herbal Recipes for Drinks Old and New. Omega.

Pellechia, T. (2008). The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Starting and Running a Winery. Penguin Group.

Pellett, F. C. (1977). American Honey Plants (4th ed.). Dadant and Sons.

Persons, W. S., & Davis, J. M. (2014). Growing and Marketing Ginseng, Goldenseal and other Woodland Medicinals (Rev ed). New Society Publishers.

Pestalozzi, H. (2000). Sectoral Fallow Systems and the Management of Soil Fertility: The Rationality of Indigenous Knowledge in the High Andes of Bolivia. Mred Mountain Research and Development, 20(1), 64–71.

Petrini, C. (2003). Slow Food: The Case for Taste. Colombia University Press.

Petrini, C. (2015). Food & Freedom: How the Slow Food Movement Is Changing the World Through Gastronomy (J. Irving, Trans.). Rizzoli Ex Libris.

Petrini, C., Furlan, C., Hunt, J., & Waters, A. (2007). Slow Food Nation: Why Our Food Should Be Good, Clean, And Fair. Rizzoli Ex Libris.

Petrini, C., & Padovani, G. (2006). Slow Food Revolution: A New Culture for Eating and Living (1st Printing edition). Rizzoli.

Petrini, C., & Waters, A. (2010). Terra Madre: Forging a New Global Network of Sustainable Food Communities. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Phillips, M. (1998). The Apple Grower: A Guide for the Organic Orchardist. Chelsea Green Pub. Co.

Phillips, M. (2012). The Holistic Orchard: Tree Fruits and Berries the Biological Way. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Pollan, M. (2006). The omnivore’s dilemma: A natural history of four meals. Penguin Press.

Powell, R. (2014). Apples of New England: A User’s Guide. Countryman Press.

Pudup, M. B. (1990). The Limits of Subsistence: Agriculture and Industry in Central Appalachia. Agricultural History, 64(1), 61–89. JSTOR.

Ragan, W. H. (2012). Nomenclature of the apple; a catalogue of the known varieties referred to in American publications from 1804 to 1904. RareBooksClub.com.

Reader, J. (2009). Potato: A history of the propitious esculent. Yale University Press.

Reed, S. (2018). Climate-Wise Landscaping: Practical Actions for a Sustainable Future. New Society Publishers, Limited.

Reedy, D., McClatchey, W. C., Smith, C., Lau, Y. H., & Bridges, K. W. (2009). A Mouthful of Diversity: Knowledge of Cider Apple Cultivars in the United Kingdom and Northwest United States. Economic Botany, 63(1), 2–15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12231-008-9071-2

Reich, L. (2008). Uncommon Fruits for Every Garden. Timber Press.

Reich, L. (2012). Grow Fruit Naturally: A Hands-On Guide to Luscious, Homegrown Fruit. Taunton Press.

Rhoades, M. B., J. Recharte ,. E. Schmidt ,. R. Booth R. (1988). Traditional Potato Storage in Peru: Farmers’ knowledge and practices. International Potato Center.

Rogers, M. (1990). Saving Seeds: The Gardener’s Guide to Growing and Storing Vegetable and Flower Seeds. Storey Communications.

Rogers, M. (2012). Saving Seeds: The Gardener’s Guide to Growing and Saving Vegetable and Flower Seeds. Storey Publishing, LLC.

Roosevelt, T. (1902). Message from the President of the United States, Transmitting a Report of. Government Printing Office. http://books.google.com/books?id=2n0AAAAAYAAJ

Rothbaum, N. (2007). The Business of Spirits. Kaplan Publishing.

S. E. Gill, J. F. Handley, A. R. Ennos, & S. Pauleit. (2007, March 19). Adapting Cities for Climate Change: The Role of the Green Infrastructure [Research-article]. http://www.atypon-link.com/ALEX/doi/abs/10.2148/benv.33.1.115

Sanjur, O. I., Piperno, D. R., Andres, T. C., & Wessel-Beaver, L. (2002). Phylogenetic relationships among domesticated and wild species of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) inferred from a mitochondrial gene: Implications for crop plant evolution and areas of origin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(1), 535–540. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.012577299

Sauceman, F. W. (2000). Home and Away, a University Brings Food to the Table. East Tennessee State University.

Scheub, U., Pieplow, H., Schmidt, H.-P., Draper, K., & Flannery, T. (2016). Terra Preta: How the World’s Most Fertile Soil Can Help Reverse Climate Change and Reduce World Hunger. Greystone Books.

Schlosser, E. (2002). Fast Food Nation. Perennial.

Schramm, K. (2003). The Compleat Meadmaker: Home Production of Honey Wine from Your First Batch to Award-Winning Fruit and Herb Variations. Brewers Publications.

Séguret, S. G. (2016). Appalachian Appetite: Recipes from the Heart of America. Hatherleigh Press.

Selvaraju, R., Trapido, P. J., Santos, N., Del Mar Polo Lacasa, M., & Hayman, A. A. (2013). Climate change and agriculture in Jamaica: Agricultural sector support analysis. Environment and Natural Resources Management Series (FAO) Eng No. 21. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=XF2015000809

Shapiro, H.-Y. S., & Harrisson, J. (2000). Gardening for the Future of the Earth. Bantam.

Shein, C. (2013). The Vegetable Gardener’s Guide to Permaculture: Creating an Edible Ecosystem. Timber Press.

Shelton, F. (1964). Southern Appalachian Mountain Cookbook: Rare Time-Tested Recipes from the Blue Ridge and Great Smoky Mountains. Hutcraft.

Shepard, M. (2013). Restoration Agriculture (1st ed.). Acres U.S.A.

Shirk, R. (2015). The Seed Saving Guide: Beginner’s Guide to Growing and Saving Seeds. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Skarbø, K., & VanderMolen, K. (2016). Maize migration: Key crop expands to higher altitudes under climate change in the Andes. Climate and Development, 8(3), 245–255. https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2015.1034234

Smith, B. D. (1989). Origins of Agriculture in Eastern North America. Science, 246(4937), 1566–1571.

Smith, B. D. (1998). The Emergence of Agriculture. Scientific American Library.

Smith, J Russell. (1916). Farming Appalachia. American Review of Reviews, 53, 329–336.

Smith, Joseph Russell. (1950). Tree Crops; a Permanent Agriculture. Devin-Adair.

Sohn, M. F. (1996). Mountain Country Cooking: A Gathering of the Best Recipes from the Smokies to the Blue Ridge (1st ed). St. Martin’s Press.

Sohn, M. F. (2005). Appalachian Home Cooking: History, Culture, and Recipes. University Press of Kentucky.

Sommers, B. J. (2008). The Geography of Wine: How Landscapes, Cultures, Terroir, and the Weather Make a Good Drop. Plume.

Stilphen, G. A. (1993). The Apples of Maine. Stilphens Crooked River Farm.

Stoll, S. (2017). Ramp Hollow: The Ordeal of Appalachia. Hill and Wang.

Sumner, D. A., Bombrun, H., Alston, J. M., & Heien, D. (2004). North America. In Kym Anderson (Ed.), The World’s Wine Markets (p. 335). Edward Elgar Publishing Lmtd.

Tamang, J. P., & Kailasapathy, K. (2010). Fermented foods and beverages of the world. CRC Press.

Tasch, W., & Petrini, C. (2010). Inquiries into the Nature of Slow Money: Investing as if Food, Farms, and Fertility Mattered. Chelsea Green Publishing.

The New Strategist. (2004). Who’s Buying Alcoholic Beverages. New Strategist Publications, Inc.

Thornton, C. (2014). Cider Apples: Rare and Heritage Fruit Cultivars #2. Leaves of Gold Press.

Toensmeier, E. (2007). Perennial vegetables: From artichoke to zuiki taro, a gardener’s guide to over 100 delicious, easy-to-grow edibles. Chelsea Green Pub.

Toensmeier, E. (2013). Paradise Lot: Two Plant Geeks, One-Tenth of an Acre, and the Making of an Edible Garden Oasis in the City. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Toensmeier, E., & Herren, H. (2016). The Carbon Farming Solution: A Global Toolkit of Perennial Crops and Regenerative Agriculture Practices for Climate Change Mitigation and Food Security. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Topalian, C., & Ryder, T. (2010). Edible: A Celebration of Local Foods. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Trought, J. (2015). The Community-Scale Permaculture Farm: The D Acres Model for Creating and Managing an Ecologically Designed Educational Center. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Trubek, A. B. (2009). The Taste of Place: A Cultural Journey into Terroir. University of California Press.

Turner, N. (2011). Edible and Tended Wild Plants, Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Agroecology. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 30(1–2), 1–2.

Turner, N. J., Lepofsky, D., & Deur, D. (2013). Plant Management Systems of British Columbia’s First Peoples. BC Studies: The British Columbian Quarterly, 0(179), 107–133.

Turner, N. J., Łuczaj, Ł. J., Migliorini, P., Pieroni, A., Dreon, A. L., Sacchetti, L. E., & Paoletti, M. G. (2011). Edible and Tended Wild Plants, Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Agroecology. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 30(1–2), 198–225. https://doi.org/10.1080/07352689.2011.554492

USDA. (2009). Appalachian Farming Systems Research Center, Beaver, WV Products and Services. http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/Services.htm?modecode=19-32-00-00&filteryear=2009

Van Wyk, B.-E. (2005). Food plants of the world: An illustrated guide. Timber Press.

Vance, J. D. (2016). Hillbilly Elegy: A Memoir of a Family and Culture in Crisis. Harper.

Vargas, P., & Gulling, R. (1999). Making Wild Wines & Meads: 125 Unusual Recipes Using Herbs, Fruits, Flowers & More (Revised). Storey Publishing, LLC.

Veteto, J. (2008). The History and Survival of Traditional Heirloom Vegetable Varieties in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Western North Carolina. Agriculture and Human Values, 25(1), 121–134. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-007-9097-6

Veteto, J., Nabhan, G. P., Fitzsimons, R., Routson, K., & Walker, D. (Eds.). (2011). Place-Based Foods of Appalachia: From Rarity to Community Restoration and Market Recovery. Renewing America’s Food Traditions. www.raftalliance.org

Veteto, James R., & Carlson, S. B. (2014). Climate Change and Apple Diversity: Local Perceptions from Appalachian North Carolina. Journal of Ethnobiology, 34(3), 359–382. https://doi.org/10.2993/0278-0771-34.3.359

Veteto, James R., & Lockyer, J. (2008). Environmental Anthropology Engaging Permaculture: Moving Theory and Practice Toward Sustainability. Culture & Agriculture, 30(1–2), 47–58. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-486X.2008.00007.x

Veteto, James R., & Skarbø, K. (2009). Sowing the Seeds: Anthropological Contributions to Agrobiodiversity Studies. Culture & Agriculture, 31(2), 73–87. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-486X.2009.01022.x

Veteto, James Robert. (2005). The History and Survival of Traditional Heirloom Vegetable Varieties and Strategies for the Conservation of Crop Biodiversity in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Western North Carolina: A Thesis. Appalachian State University.

Veteto, James Robert. (2010). Seeds of persistence [Doctoral Dissertation, University of Georgia]. http://ugakr-maint.libs.uga.edu/handle/123456789/8101?show=full

Vidrih, R., & Hribar, J. (2016). Mead: The Oldest Alcoholic Beverage. In Traditional Foods (pp. 325–338). Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-7648-2_26

Waldo, M. (1963). The Pleasures of Wine: A Guide to the Wines of the World. Gramercy Pub. Co.

Watson, B. (1996). Taylor’s Guide to Heirloom Vegetables: A Complete Guide to the Best Historic and Ethnic Varieties. Houghton Mifflin.

Weaver, W. W. (1997). Heirloom Vegetable Gardening ; a Master Gardener’s Guide to Planting, Growing, Seed Saving, and Cultural History (1st ed.). Henry Holt and Company.

Weingartner, P. J., Billings, D. B., & Blee, K. M. (1989). Agriculture in Preindustrial Appalachia: Subsistence Farming in Beech Creek, 1850-1880. Journal of the Appalachian Studies Association, 1, 70–80. JSTOR. https://doi.org/10.2307/45237542

Welch-Devine, M., Sourdril, A., & Burke, B. J. (Eds.). (2020). Changing Climate, Changing Worlds: Local Knowledge and the Challenges of Social and Ecological Change. Springer.

Whealy, D. O. (2011). Gathering: Memoir of a Seed Saver (First Edition edition). Seed Savers Exchange.

Whealy, K., & Adelmann, A. (1986). Seed Savers Exchange: The First Ten Years. Seed Saver Publications.

Whitefield, P. (1998). How to Make a Forest Garden (2d ed.). Permanent Publications.

Wiersema, J. H., & León, B. (2013). World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference, Second Edition (2nd ed.). CRC Press.

Williams, G. (1979). Agrisilviculture for Appalachia: A Bibliography of Relevant Materials Selected from the Library of the International Tree Crops Institute. International Tree Crops Institute, U.S.A., Inc., Appalachian Regional Office.

Williams, J. A. (2002). Appalachia: A History. The University of North Carolina Press.

Wilson, A. B. (2006). The Fragility of Small Farming: Neoliberal Logic and Globalization in Valle Crucis, North Carolina: A Thesis. Appalachian State University.

Wilson, G. L. (2005). Native American Gardening: Buffalobird-Woman’s Guide to Traditional Methods. Dover Publications.

Wilson, H. (1990). Quinua and Relatives ( Chenopodium sect. Chenopodium subsect. Celluloid ). Economic Botany, 44(Supplement 3), 92–110. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02860478

Wolverton, S., Chambers, K. J., & Veteto, J. R. (2014). Climate Change and Ethnobiology. Journal of Ethnobiology, 34(3), 273–275. https://doi.org/10.2993/0278-0771-34.3.273

Wright, G. (2013). Veld to Fork: Slow Food from the Heart of the Karoo (1ST edition). Struik Lifestyle.

Yepsen, R. (1994). Apples. W. W. Norton & Company.

Zimmerman, J. (2015). Make Mead Like a Viking: Traditional Techniques for Brewing Natural, Wild-Fermented, Honey-Based Wines and Beers. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Ziska, L. H., Blumenthal, D. M., Runion, G. B., Hunt, E. R., & Diaz-Soltero, H. (2011). Invasive species and climate change: An agronomic perspective. Climatic Change, 105(1), 13–42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-010-9879-5

Zuckerman, L. (1998). The Potato: How the Humble Spud Rescued the Western World. Faber and Faber.

Zystro, J., & Colley, M. (2015). The Seed Garden: The Art and Practice of Seed Saving (L. Buttala & S. Siegel, Eds.). Seed Savers Exchange.


comments powered by Disqus