Plant Talk 6 Temperate Wild Food Plants
Greetings Plant Enthusiasts!
Spring is rapidly coming to a close…
This photo album represent this time of year from various perspectives around North America. Last year i taught multiple classes at the International Herbal Symposium in Norton, MA and Bastyr University in Seattle, WA. While in Massachusetts i visited the Harvard Arboretum and their world class Glass flower collection at the Peabody Museum. A number of different botanical gardens in Washington were visited as well. Other places featured include Midwest locales at the Cleveland Botanical Garden and Boener Botanical gardens in Milwaukee en route to a trip out west. Some pictures from the centuries old Hortus Botanicus in Amsterdam in the country where my mom lives offer more obscure and unusual plants for the time of year spanning the first couple weeks of June. See the link to the album below.
Things currently blooming around Asheville, NC include Adam’s Needle (Yucca filamentosa) Avens (Geum spp.), Butterfly Weed (Asclepias tuberosa), California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica), Che (Maclura tricuspidata), wild Carrot (Daucus carota) southern Catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides), Chestnut (Castanea mollissima), Crown Vetch (Securigera varia), Dianthus (Dianthus spp.), Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis), Gallberry (Ilex glabra), Goat’s Rue (Tephrosia viriginiana), wild Hydrangea (Hydrangea arborescens), Southern Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), Nipplewort (Lapsana communis), Penstemon spp., Persimmon (Diospyros spp.), Poke Leaf Milkweed (Asclepias exaltata), Privet (Ligustrum spp.), Redroot (Ceanothus americana), Roses (Rosa spp.), Sanicle (Sanicula spp.),Southern Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), Sow Thistle (Sonchus oleraceus), Trumpet Creeper (Campsis radicans), and Venus’s Looking Glass (Triodanis spp.). Rugosa Rose (Rosa rugosa) is one of my favorites for its lovely smell and big hips though it can be a bit invasive at times. The headily fragrant, sweet flowered invasive and medicinal, Japanese Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) is in full bloom as well. Winged everlasting pea (Lathyrus latifolius) has started to bloom too.
Greens of Pigweed (Amaranthus spp.), Lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) and Quickweed (Galinsoga) are ready for picking. In the woodland garden Sochane (Rudbeckia laciniata), Sweet Cicely (Osmorhiza spp.), Violets (Viola spp.) and Wood Nettle (Laportea candensis) can all be prolifically available.
Early Blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), Cherries (Prunus spp.), Goumi (Elaeagnus multiflora), Mulberry (Morus spp.). What’s going on botanically around you? One of my favorite fruits known variously as Juneberries/Saskatoon/Serviceberries (Amelanchier spp.) .
Without further adieu...
Wild Foods Overview
Below is a modification of a paper i wrote in graduate school over a decade ago about wild plant food use in Appalachia. The information is mostly germane to the eastern U.S. but can often be extrapolated to other temperate places, especially at the genus level. It is written mostly from a historical perspective as it was originally composed for an Appalachian history class. Important to emphasize that this is a very alive and evolving practice across the world with many groups currently and that this knowledge is core to our potential future sustainability.
i intend in this current rendition to weave in ideas i have picked up from other areas along the way in recent years. i would love to do all of this from a Western and Eastern American and ultimately Asian/European and beyond perspective blended together. However, the bigger 25 page paper just covering Applachia, of which this is a distillation below, took me around 70 hours of research and writing. So i will defer to occasional commentary from a western and also other locational direction.
i discovered in my research the use of approximately 170 wild edible plants in Appalachia in the 1800s and early 1900s. Approximately 175 additional wild edible plants were found to occur within the region that may have been used at some point in time by natives or settlers and could currently be put into use. No doubt others exist that were not found in the literature as well.
The modern cookbooks of Appalachia that cover wild foods typically fall into two categories. Some local born sons and daughters have written in a way to celebrate their heritage without falling into stereotypes. The four authors that exemplify this style are Joseph Dabney, Sidney Saylor Farr, Susi Gott, Mark Sohn (Dabney, 1998; Farr, 1983, 1995; Seguret 2016; Sohn, 1996, 1998, 2005). These writers provide a wealth of knowledge about Appalachian cooking in general sprinkled with oral history from their own experiences and also extensive interviews with elders. The famous Foxfire books provide further direct insight into wild food use in Appalachia (Page & Wigginton, 1992; Wigginton, 1972, 1973, 1973). The other type of Appalachian cookbook that features wild edibles plays into stereotypical hillbilly conceptions using vernacular terms for recipes and ingredients while proposing to honor hundreds of years of heritage (Ozark Maid Candies (Osaage Beach, Mo.), 1966; Ryan, 1966; Shelton, 1964, 1973; Tate, 1968). These books are still available in gas stations and other touristic places today and offer interesting cultural insights if not always taken literally and out of context.
Even when wild plants are mentioned in contemporary cookbooks diversity is greatly lacking. Though some of the most choice need to know plants of the area are highlighted understandably. The prevailing plants are included in a table below:
Blackberry (Rubus spp.) Rosaceae
Paw paw (Asimina triloba) Annonaceae
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Asteraceae
Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) Ebenaceae
Grapes (Vitis spp.) Vitaceae
Poke (Phytolacca americana) Phytolaccaceae
Hickory (Carya spp.) Juglandaceae
Ramps (Allium tricoccum) Amaryllidaceae
Lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) Amaranthaceae
Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) Lauraceae
Poke in the Phytolaccaceae is an outlier in that it is a small mostly tropical American family and can be poisonous if used improperly. The greens are an incredible food that was once even sold commercially. Only the early spring greens prior to turning red tend to be COOKED IN MULTIPLE CHANGES OF WATER FOR AT LEAST 30 MINUTES before being consumed. It is a spring cleaning ritual green that helps detoxify the body in general and the lymph system in particular. The term Poke salad or salat is confusing as we often think of salad as a raw preparation. Rarely were greens historically eaten raw in Appalachia and salad was most often wilted with some kind of grease before consumption. See more at the link here.
Lots of other plants are used in spring cleaning/detox regimes including Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), Yellow Dock (Rumex obtusifolius and R. crispus), Burdock (Arctium spp.) and Cleavers (Galium aparine). Do you have any particular plants of interest for this type of regime?
Sassafras is more of an eastern U.S. plant also used in spring cleansing around Appalachia (Nordhaus, 2006; Wigginton, 1977). Many species occur in Asia as well. Some controversy arose about the safety of this plant in the 1970s (Segelman AB, 1976). Dr. Jim Duke who worked for the USDA for decades discounted the overall concern around the active ingredient Safrole and the small amounts consumed in the average root beer versus the relative toxicity of many other commonly consumed items such as regular alcohol containing beer. According to Master’s thesis work of Kate Cummings (2012), the form of preparation can also affect the Safrole content in Sassafras tea.
Sassafras aside, lots of folks have something cool from the Lauraceae around them. Think Cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.), Bay Leaf (Laurus nobilis), California Bay (Umbellularia californica), Avocado (Persea americana), Red Bay (Persea spp.) and Spice Bush (Lindera benzoin). The Ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus is taking down some species of the Persea genus in Florida which is of great concern. It is worth noting that the fruits of the California bay above are consumed after roasting but may be toxic prior to that. Pondspice (Litsea spp.) and the Sweetwoods (Nectandra spp.)/(Ocotea spp.) are some important genera in the neotropics.
Ramps are a special wide leaf member of the formerly classified Onion family (Alliaceae). The Onion family has been subsumed in the newest versions of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III/IV classification and put into the Amaryllidaceae (Group, 2009; The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, 2016). However, it is still helpful to distinguish this group with its aromatic sulfur based smells from other monocot look a likes. Monocots in general have a lot of DEADLY poisonous members especially in the Liliales order. Look a likes for ramps include two types of Lily of the Valley of which one is an introduced European native and one is from America (Convallaria majalis and Convallaria majuscula). Pleated Hellebores (Veratrum spp.) are another potential group that may be confused with ramps at a superficial level. i have seen a similar version to Appalachian ramps in central Europe (Allium ursinum) and am not sure if others grow around the world. This European species grows all over the continent and the use here by settlers is an example of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) transferred upon the arrival of Scotch, Irish and others in the Appalachia region according to a talk by USDA botanist Jim Chamberlain at a Society for Economic Botany conference in Maryland a few years ago. Whole festivals and large parts of volunteer firefighter budgets are supported by the ramp tradition of Appalachia. However, these plants can grow slow in their upper elevation habitats and sustainable harvest and propagation is a growing concern (Bentrup et al., 2011; Cool, 2013; Facemire, 2009; Facemire & Gray, 2012; Kane, 2013; Lowry, 2014; Nyerges, 2014; Rock et al., 2004).
The grass family (Poaceae) is probably the single most important food family in the modern world and typically has very little toxicity. i have heard of the presence of cyanide in Sorghum which is a notable exception. The toxicity of the fungus Ergot (Claviceps purpurea) that can lead to the ailment known as St Anthony’s fire is a notable exception as well in regards to consuming infected members of the grass family. Aspergillus molds can also affect grains from this family. A lot of wild grains, though small, offer themselves up abundantly all around the world every year and bear mentioning due to the low toxicity in this family in general. Crabgrass (Digitaria spp.) and Foxtail millet (Setaria spp.) are two weedy and wild grass species that have served as grains for humans in times past (François Couplan, 1998; Sturtevant & Hedrick, 1972).
The Rose family is the best family that i am aware of in the temperate world for wild and cultivated fruits. The Rubus genus alone provides hundreds of species including Blackberries, Raspberries, Cloudberries, Wineberries, Salmonberries, Marionberries etc... However, many other wild fruit genera occur around the world including Chokeberries (Aronia spp.), Hawthorn (Crataegus), Juneberries (Amelanchier), Mountain Ash/Rowan (Sorbus), Cherries (Prunus) and many others. Toyon aka Hollywood (Heteromeles arbutifolia) and Oso Berry (Oemleria cerasiformis) are a couple of my favorites from California. Tangentially my birth state of California has a great literature on wild edible plants (Balls, 1962; Clarke, 1978; Kane, 2013; Lowry, 2014; Nyerges, 2014; Thompson, 1976; J. Wiltens, 1999; J. S. Wiltens, 1988).
Most regions of the world contain hundreds of wild plants species that are not only fit for consumption but are choice edibles. North America alone has over 4,000 edible species in total (Couplan, 1998). The same author has generated works on wild edibles of Europe as well both in French, Spanish and German though unfortunately not English that i have found (Francois Couplan, n.d., 1998, 2003, 2007, 2013a, 2013b). Much other scholarly work has been done on wild edibles of Europe as well (Cameron, 1917; Hadjichambis et al., 2008; Jman Redzic, 2006; Łuczaj, 2008, 2012; Łuczaj & Pieroni, 2016; Pardo-de-Santayana et al., 2007, 2010; Prendergast & Sanderson, 2004; Rivera et al., 2007; Tardio et al., 2006).
In the tropics the palm family (Arecaceae) is another major monocot food group that can sometimes be foraged i.e. Coconuts (Cocos nucifera), Oil Palm (Elaeis oleifera) and Dates (Phoenix spp.) The literature for palms used as food and for various other applications is rather vast as one might imagine given its primacy in most sustainable tropical communities around the world. (Balick & Beck, 1990; Bernal et al., 2010; Bodley, 1979; Craft et al., 2012; Gómez, 1996; Gruca et al., 2014; Haynes & McLaughlin, 2000; Isaza et al., 2017; Paniagua-Zambrana et al., 2015; Sylvester et al., 2012; Sylvester & Avalos, 2009). i have personally very much enjoyed foraging for coconuts down in South Florida and other places. The Fishtail Palm (Caryota spp.) is one exception i know of that is hurtful if consumed although more may exist. A few other food plants also occur in the monocots but it is important to be sure of positive identification and go slow. Orange Day Lily (Hemerocallis fulva) is another example that has been eaten for thousands of years in Asia but some people seem to be allergic and get digestive distress upon consumption especially of the tubers and greens and it has many lookalikes when not blooming as well.
The use of many wild plants requires an intimate knowledge of plant form (morphology), part to use, method of preparation, time to harvest and other attention to details. One idea i have is that the level of awareness necessary to make effective, safe and sustainanle use of wild edibles may have acted as a barrier to inclusion within contemporary source material at the general cookbook level.
Many books have been written in the last 40 years about the edibility of wild plants. Most of these books are published in the popular press by lay writers with few citations (Angier, 1974; Fernald & Kinsey, 1996; Hatfield, 1974; Peterson, 1978). Few put the edibility of wild plants within a historical context. Recently some more thorough and scholarly resources have become available by a few authors (Baudar, 2016, 2018, 2020; Kallas, 2010; Meredith, 2016; Thayer, 2006, 2017).
A series of regional guides has recently come out from Timber press for the Southeast, Northwest, California, Northeast, Southwest and the Mountain States as cited in order following (Bennett, 2015; Deur, 2014; Lowry, 2014; Meredith, 2014; Slattery, 2016; Wiles, 2016).
Cherokee Ethnobotanical Studies
Some writers on the Cherokee allude to primary sources but do not cite them directly (Chiltoskey, 1951; Hamel, 1975). Banks and Perry (1953; 1974) relied on information directly gleaned from living Cherokee who had historical knowledge. Relatively recent doctorate level research on Cherokee ethnobotany has been pursued by a few authors as well (Cozzo, 2004; Hall, 2006, 2010; Schafer, 1993; Veteto, 2010). There seems to be little doubt that both the Cherokee and early settlers relied heavily upon wild plant foods for sustenance. This was especially the case in the spring time.
Contemporary Cherokee cookbooks tend to include many more wild edibles than other cookbooks from or about Appalachia. Juniper (Juniperus virginiana) wood tea is one example (Sharpe, 1973). Sharpe includes information about 38 other wild edibles in this small volume. Surprisingly, they include flowers of Adder’s Tongue? and Rue Anemone (Thalictrum sp.)?. None of these plants have been mentioned by other sources and some of them are toxic if the wrong part is used. No details are given that warn people away from inappropriate and dangerous preparation. Inadequate information is a common occurrence in the modern literature meant for the lay public unfortunately. This can be a problem further exacerbated by the open format of the internet.
The Cherokees of the 19th century are listed as having around 800 plants in their repertoire (Mooney, 1992). This from a pool of about 2,400 species of plants to work with represents about a third of the total flora! William Banks (1953) used this list as a spring board to study Cherokee plant use more in depth. Banks occasionally reports radically different uses of certain plants even within the same Eastern band of the Cherokee community. A newer edition of the work of Banks is available as well (Banks, 2004).
Mary Ulmer Chilotskey, Goingback Chilotskey and Samuel Beck provided a great service by taking the recipes of Cherokee elders and writing them down. Swamp potato, Passion flower (Passiflora incarnata), Sochani (Rudbeckia laciniata) and Wanegidun (Ligusticum canadense) are all items not included from other sources. The potential sustainability of any type of large scale harvest of what i call Angelico or Appalachian Osha (Ligusticum canadense) locally is doubtful to me from what i have observed of its uncommon distribution around the woods of Western North Carolina. It is a perennial however and possibly the occasional harvest of just leaves and keeping the roots in place may be one method of conservation. Also at the USDA plant site its distribution is listed as rather broad. Sumacade made from the fruit Rhus glabra and Rhus typhina is another novel item mentioned by the Chiltoskey. It is important not to confuse the Poison Sumac (Toxicodendron vernix) with the edible ones. Poison Sumac has white fruits, different shaped leaves and tends to grow by water. Several other species have been used in the western U.S. and the Mediterranean. The edible ones all have red fruits. There is a plant called False Poison Sumac (Rhus michauxii) which is endangered and apparently makes red fruits from a quick Google image search but i have never met it and don't know of its toxicity (Barden & Matthews, 2004).
Paul Hamel (1975) published a synthesized compilation of plants used by the Cherokee with assistance from Mary Chilotskey. The authors cover 511 plants in total of which 86 wild plants are said to have edible uses. The authors used various sources to compile their list. The previously mentioned studies of Banks and Core (1967) were used as well as writings by Timberlake (2007) and Mooney.
The work of Dr. Daniel Moerman titled Native American Ethnobotany (1998) relies mostly on the primary resources mentioned here for the Cherokee section. However, Dr. Moerman offers in depth ethnobotanical treatments both in his book and online for close to 300 tribal groups of North America. What is the indigenous group of your area? It would be great if you could tell us something that they traditionally consume! Do us all a favor and find this out if you don't know it already. Then access Dr. Moerman's database site if you live in North America to look up a few major wild edibles from that group and include them in the comment box below or in an email to me or conversely on the Facebook page for Botany Everyday.
Myra Jean Perry’s master’s thesis (1974) focused on contemporary food use of wild plants by the Cherokee. Interesting wild edible plants that Perry includes which had not been mentioned in literature previous to hers include; Deer tongue (Chelone sp.), Joe Pye weed (Eupatorium purpureum), Lousewort (Pedicularis canadensis), “Wild Turnip” (Penthorum sedoides) and Wild Hydrangea (Hydrangea arborescens). i would not recommend the use of any of these plants for food for various reasons although some of them are powerful medicine. Other novel information includes the use of Poke berries for wine and as a colorant for food products. Poke berries are considered toxic in most literature but it may be just the seeds. As an aside Perry’s spelling of scientific names is sometimes in error.
Perry like Banks recorded Cherokee names for plants. However, these names often seem to vary greatly both in actual use amongst the tribe and in visual representation. Perry confirms that the main seasons of wild plant use were during times when agricultural productivity was low i.e. winter into early spring. She states that wild plant food use remained ingrained with the Cherokee despite introduction of European foodways and new agricultural methods. Native Americans are said to have used more wild plants than both blacks and whites.
It is important to remember that Cherokees are still very much alive and inhabiting now two locales rather than one central homeland and at least to some degree continue to carry out their traditions of old. Putting all reference to them in the past tense is in essence to portray them as extinct and thereby in a certain way enacting another genocide. i have steadily been trying to move my word choice away from the typical practice of only framing their knowledge historically when teaching but as i said before this paper came primarily from a history class so there you go.
A number of good book resources also exist for use of western tribal plant use as well. i have found the most diverse resources for groups from California (Anderson, 2006; Barrett & Gifford, 2011; Bean, 1974; Beck & Strike, 1994; Castetter, 1935; Chestnut, 1974; Dubin & Tolley, 2008; Funk & Kaufman, 2011; Jacknis, 2006; Margolin, 1981; Ortiz & Parker, 1996; Thompson, 1976; Timbrook, 2007; Vizgirdas & Rey-Vizgirdas, 2009; Welch, 2013).
However, Nancy Turner is a total force of nature as an individual who has worked with many groups in the Pacific Northwest (Deur & Turner, 2006; Ignace et al., 2016; Joseph et al., 2012; Pojar et al., 1994; Nancy J. Turner & Kuhnlein, 1991; Nancy J. Turner, 1981; Nancy J Turner, 1983; Nancy J. Turner, 2010a, 2010b, 2010c; Nancy J Turner et al., 1982, 2004, 2011; Nancy J. Turner et al., 2011, 2013; Nancy J Turner & Royal British Columbia Museum, 2007; Nancy Jean Turner, 1973; Whereat-Phillips & Turner, 2016).
Various other resources refer to indigenous and others wild food practices in the desert southwest as well (Frank, 1991; Hodgson, 2001; Hughes, 1977; Kane, 2011, 2016; Keegan, 1987; Niethammer, 1999; Salmon, 2012).
Categories of Preparation
Often in Appalachia the process of cooking traditionally included boiling and then frying in grease. When greens were boiled the left over liquid was often used as a sauce or dip (Dabney, 1998; Nordhaus, 2006; Tate, 1968). This practice makes the most of water soluble minerals. The left over liquid was most commonly referred to as “pot likker.” Many different types of greens were eaten in combination with each other. Greens were also used in tea preparations either for hydration or with medicinal purposes.
Nuts make up a prime category of wild food plants. Hickories (Carya spp.) and Chestnuts (Castanea spp.) are mentioned the most frequently. Acorns are mentioned more in contemporary literature. Chestnuts are more choice than acorns and were a dominant species in Appalachia in much of the Eastern US until the advent of the Chestnut blight in the 1930’s (Dalgleish & Swihart, 2012). Nuts were typically ground up and used in baking or in stews. They can also be used to make a type of coffee. Hickories were used to make a type of milk. This practice is something i have replicated with fellow botanist and good friend Mycol Stevens at his place Finca Mycol in Florida and elsewhere. i also have found a cookbook focused on the use of wild nuts (Jumbalaya, 2006). Osker Brown of Glorious Forest Farm is an inspirational practioner of sculpting food forest with native Appalachian woodland species.
Wild Edibles Conclusion
Wild foods in the diets of Appalachian settlers and natives alike largely consisted of meat, nuts, and fruits. Greens, when mentioned were almost always cooked. White Lettuce or Gall of the Earth (Prenanthes syn Nabalus spp.) is one notable exception (François Couplan, 1998). Many wild greens were consumed mostly in the early spring. The concept of a raw salad seems largely foreign to the diet of people in early North America in general. The term salad is often applied to a wilted or cooked greens dish (Hamel, 1975).
Surprising omissions of wild edible plants in the primary literature surveyed for Appalachia in regards to “choice” greens include no mention of Honewort (Cryptotaenia canadensis), Chickweed (Stellaria media), Quickweed (Galinsoga spp.), Violets (Viola spp.), Beggar’s ticks (Bidens spp.) and Wood Nettle (Laportea canadensis). Only a few of these vegetables are mentioned later in the literature including Violets (Banks, 1953; Perry, 1974). The Cherokee tended historically to abstain from the use of introduced plants as far as i can tell. Only seven out of 55 introduced wild edible plants were shown to be used by them in the sources above.
Many plants that were in use have no doubt not been discovered in my research and/or not noticed or reported by early travelers/researchers in Appalachia. The Native Americans seem to have made much more extensive use of wild plants than settlers. Studies of personal histories by settlers might turn up more plants. However, understanding the plants referred to by settlers might be hampered by reliance on varied common names only. Trained scholars with knowledge of scientific names have not published studies of settler diets to the degree that Cherokee diets have been covered.
Many more plants that have not been mentioned are also used regularly by contemporary foragers (Couplan, 1998; Gillespie, 1959). Gillespie lists 185 different plants total as wild foods of Appalachia. Most of all the plants mentioned formerly by others are included. In addition he lists unusual plants such as Clearweed (Pilea pumila), Crab Grass (Digitaria sanguinalis), Quackgrass (Agropyron repens syn Elymus repens) seeds and Trilliums (Trillium spp.). Six informants of Banks (1953) stated that there was no food use for Trilliums. Trilliums are often rare and special wildflowers and i personally eschew and encourage you to never use them for food or anything else for that matter! Harvesting rare plants is a genuine concern both for straight species and particularly limited subspecies and varieties. i hope more and more to disabuse folks of overgeneralization at the genus and species level in regards to what is fit and ethical to harvest when such plants may be present. Natureserv and United Plants Savers are excellent resources for assessing what rare plants may be in your area.
The uses of widely naturalized plants from Eurasia with long held traditions might be assumed to have continued with the settlers that came from there (Erichsen-Brown, 1989; Gillespie, 1986; Lovelock, 1973). Some of these plants include Asteraceae members Dandelion (Taraxacum spp.), Chickory (Cichorium intybus) and Burdock (Arctium spp.). Queen Anne’s lace (Daucus carota) Apiaceae, Nettles (Urtica dioica) Urticaceae and various members of the Brassica family were probably used as well. Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) and Borage (Borago officinalis) from the Boraginaceae have been used traditionally in Europe for generations. However, internal use is now often discouraged due to potential liver toxic effects from pyrrolizidine alkaloids.
Fruits and nuts were mentioned in the literature throughout. Barberries (Berberis spp.) and (Viburnum spp.) are notable exceptions that are not mentioned possibly due to their somewhat sour and slightly bitter nature. However, numerous species (though not all) of both genera are said to be edible (François Couplan, 1998). Fruits and nuts also offer the most return on investment of time and energy. Nonetheless, greens are an important source of vitamins and minerals. When greens are mentioned they are often associated with their anti-scurvy properties due to the presence of vitamin C and medicinal value.
Throughout the contemporary literature references are made to plant use that is potentially harmful (Kavasch, 2005; Lovelock, 1973; Nordhaus, 2006; Sharpe, 1973). The skill and ability of first nations indigenous and settlers at preparing dangerous foods and making them fit to eat is admirable. Aspiring foragers are well advised to remember that people who are sometimes considered primitive had skills that should not be taken for granted. Many foods were also not known in the past to contain the harmful chemicals that have now been identified (Cozzo, 1999; Gillespie, 1959). Wild Ginger (Asarum canadense) is an example of a traditionally harvested plant that contains the toxic Aristolochic acid and is also sometimes mistaken for look-alike species of Little brown Jugs (Hexastylis spp.), of which some are very rare (Jones et al., 2014; Murrell, 2007; Padgett, 2004). Some species of Asarum are rare in their own right as well (Kelly, 2001; Sinn, 2015; Sinn et al., 2015; Vandervort-Sneed, 2008).
The thorough literature review in this study turned up a vast array of plants used by both natives and settlers. Around 170 wild edible plants were mentioned as having use in the primary literature for Appalachia in the 1800s and early 1900s. Gillespie (1959, 1986) mentions an additional 125 wild edible plants. Around 50 other wild plants are known to have food uses from other contemporary literature (Couplan, 1998). Out of the roughly 190 plant families occurring in Appalachia 49 are shown in the primary literature to have provided food. Gillespie includes an additional 27 families. One family that is conspicuously missing from already cited sources other than Couplan is the Calycanthaceae (Vick, 2011; Witthoft, 1947). The main member of this family in North America (Calycanthus) occurs in the east and the west. The stems have been used for flavoring but the seeds are DEADLY poisonous!
The main wild food families in terms of number of species are shown in the table below. The page number in Elpel (2004) and his approximations of world and continental (NA) diversity for each family follow. However, i have found wide ranging totals of family diversity in the current literature (Judd, Campbell, Kellog, Stevens, & Donahue, 2008; Mabberley, 2008; Raven, Evert, & Eichhorn, 2004; Simpson, 2010; Spears, 2006).
Dock/Knotweed (Polygonaceae) Pg 75
40 genera 800 spp. 15 genera NA
Mustard (Brassicaceae) Pg 86
375 genera 3,200 spp. 55 genera NA
Grape (Vitaceae) Pg 121
12 genera 700 spp. 4 genera NA
Oak/Chestnut (Fagaceae) Pg 64
8 genera 900 spp. 5 genera NA
Grass (Poaceae) Pg 179
600 genera 10,000 spp. 230 genera 1000+ spp. NA
Rose/Apple/Cherry (Rosaceae) Pg 100
100 genera 3,000 spp. 50 genera NA
Lily (Liliaceae) Pg 185 (Since Vastly Redefined)
250 genera 3,700 species 75 genera NA
Walnut/Hickory (Juglandaceae) Pg 63
6 genera 60 spp. 2 genera NA
Mint (Lamiaceae) Pg 147
180 genera 3,500 spp. 50 genera NA
Proof that the traditional diet was much more diverse than the modern one and rich in wild edible plants is clearly supported. Most people in the modern world depend on around 35 plants for all their plant food needs (Cunningham, 2007, p. 235). None of these plants include wild edibles. It seems we could stand to learn a lot from history and our elders.
For the next class we will cover major cultivated Plant Food families and it will be posted around Friday June 13th.
Some families to check out ahead of time include the Apiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae and Solanaceae. Below are items to think about/comment on. Please write me directly at firstname.lastname@example.org or leave information in the commentary under this class. i would really love to hear what you have to say!!!
- Attend a class/workshop either in person or virtually and write up a brief description of plants or information learned.
- Adam Haritan from Learn Your Land is a newer entrant to a host of online resources.
-Check out the website of Green Deane and start viewing some videos of the most prolifically filmed wild food forager on the web http://www.eattheweeds.com
-Check out more under the entries for any of the families mentioned above as wild edibles.
-Continue to make a photo album of a certain nature spot as the seasons progress.
-Explore the incredibly multi-faceted website of friend and colleague Robin Harford at his Eat Weeds website.
-i was fortunate to do an hours long foraging course with Natalie Bogwalker of Wild Abundance a few year ago that was all put on video as part of the extensive Living Web Farms classes You Tube digital archive.
-Online Foraging programs include The Chestnut School of herbal Medicine and the Herbal Academy both of who I have worked for at various times.
Post any CLEAR photos of question plants to Facebook or send in an email. Make sure to include location, time of year and any other relevant information i.e. site, height, etc that might aid identification. Multiple photos per plant of leaves, flowers, fruit etc can also help.
Steve Brill http://www.wildmanstevebrill.com/ is another famous American forager who has a host of resources for you.
- Watch the Wild Greens Pesto video i did a few years ago for our weekly independent paper the Mountain Xpress and then make some pesto for you, your family and ideally some to share!
- - - Praises to all that have donated to the cause. i encourage everyone to donate as they are able financially, commentarialy, or energetically... Your contributions greatly help me continue this crucial work of ethnobotanical research and education. However, smiles, hugs, words of encouragement and empathy go along way to help as well. More than anything i would love to see more comments of a botanical nature on the website!
Please let me know your thoughts in general and anyway i can help this class serve you best.
Anderson, M. K. (2006). Tending the Wild: Native American Knowledge and the Management of California’s Natural Resources (1st ed.). University of California Press.
Balick, M. J., & Beck, H. T. (1990). Useful Palms of the World. Columbia University Press.
Balls, E. K. (1962). Early Uses of California Plants. University of California Press.
Banks, W. H. (2004). Plants of the Cherokee: Medicinal, Edible, and Useful Plants of the Eastern Cherokee Indians / Kemp, Steve. Great Smoky Mountains Association.
Barden, L. S., & Matthews, J. F. (2004). André Michaux’s Sumac: Rhus michauxii Sargent: Why Did Sargent Rename It and Where Did Michaux Find It? Castanea, 69(2), 109–115.
Barrett, S. A., & Gifford, E. W. (2011). Miwok Material Culture: Indian Life Of The Yosemite Region. Literary Licensing, LLC.
Baudar, P. (2016). The New Wildcrafted Cuisine: Exploring the Exotic Gastronomy of Local Terroir. Chelsea Green Publishing.
Baudar, P. (2018). The Wildcrafting Brewer: Creating Unique Drinks and Boozy Concoctions from Nature’s Ingredients. Chelsea Green Publishing.
Baudar, P. (2020). Wildcrafted Fermentation: Exploring, Transforming, and Preserving the Wild Flavors of Your Local Terroir. Chelsea Green Publishing.
Bean, L. J. (1974). Mukat’s People: The Cahuilla Indians of Southern California. University of California Press.
Beck, B., & Strike, S. (1994). Ethnobotany of the California Indians. Vol 1, A Bibliography & Index; Vol 2, Aboriginal Uses of California’s Indigenous Plants. Koeltz Scientific Books.
Bennett, C. (2015). Southeast foraging: 120 wild and flavorful edibles from angelica to wild plums. Timber Press.
Bentrup, G., Chamberlain, J., & Kellerman, T. (2011). Using GIS-based suitability assessments to identify appropriate forest habitat for edible forests Products: Opportunities to forest farm ramps (Allium tricoccum). In Agroforestry: A Profitable Land Use.
Bernal, R., Galeano, G., García, N., Olivares, I. L., & Cocomá, C. (2010). Uses and commercial prospects for the wine palm, Attalea butyracea, in Colombia. Ethnobotany Research & Applications, 8(0), 255–268.
Bodley, J. H. (1979). Cultural ecology of Amazonian palms. Laboratory of Anthropology, Washington State University.
Cameron, L. C. R. D.-J. (1917). The Wild Foods of Great Britain, Where to Find Them and How to Cook Them. G. Routledge & Sons Ltd.
Castetter, E. F. (1935). Uncultivated native plants used as sources of food. University of New Mexico.
Chestnut, V. K. (1974). Plants Used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California (Reprint). Mendocino County Historical Society.
Clarke, C. B. (1978). Edible and Useful Plants of California. University of California Press.
Cool, B. (2013). Ramps: How to Take a Leek in the Woods. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
Couplan, Francois. (n.d.). Guia de las Plantas Silvestres Comestibles y Toxicas.
Couplan, François. (1998). The Encyclopedia of Edible Plants of North America. Keats Pub.
Couplan, Francois. (1998). Guide nutritionnel des plantes sauvages et cultivées. Delachaux & Niestle.
Couplan, Francois. (2003). Déguster les plantes sauvages. Sang de la Terre.
Couplan, Francois. (2007). Wildpflanzen für die Küche. AT Verlag.
Couplan, Francois. (2013a). Étonnantes plantes de montagne. Quae.
Couplan, Francois. (2013b). Guide des plantes sauvages comestibles et toxiques. Delachaux & Niestle.
Cozzo, D. N. (2004). Ethnobotanical Classification System and Medical Ethnobotany of the Eastern Band of the Cherokee Indians. University of Georgia.
Craft, P., Riffle, R. L., & Zona, S. (2012). The Encyclopedia of Cultivated Palms (2nd ed.). Timber Press.
Cummings, K. (2012). Sassafras Tea: Using a Traditional Method of Preparation to Reduce the Carcinogenic Compound Safrole [Master’s Thesis for an M.S. in Forestry]. Clemson University.
Dabney, J. E. (1998). Smokehouse Ham, Spoon Bread & Scuppernong Wine: The Folklore and Art of Southern Appalachian Cooking. Cumberland House.
Dalgleish, H. J., & Swihart, R. K. (2012). American Chestnut Past and Future: Implications of Restoration for Resource Pulses and Consumer Populations of Eastern U.S. Forests. Restoration Ecology, 20(4), 490–497. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2011.00795.x
Deur, D. (2014). Pacific Northwest Foraging: 120 Wild and Flavorful Edibles from Alaska Blueberries to Wild Hazelnuts. Timber Press.
Deur, D., & Turner, N. (2006). Keeping It Living: Traditions of Plant Use and Cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North America. University of Washington Press.
Dubin, M. D., & Tolley, S.-L. (2008). Seaweed, Salmon, and Manzanita Cider: A California Indian Feast. Heyday Books.
Facemire, G. (2009). Having Your Ramps and Eating Them Too. McClain Printing Company.
Facemire, G., & Gray, T. C. (2012). Ramps: Cooking with the Best Kept Secret of the Appalachian Trail. St. Lynn’s Press.
Farr, S. S. (1983). More Than Moonshine: Appalachian Recipes and Recollections. University of Pittsburgh Press.
Farr, S. S. (1995). Table Talk: Appalachian Meals and Memories. University of Pittsburgh Press.
Frank, L. E. (1991). Foods of the Southwest Indian nations: Traditional & contemporary Native American recipes. Ten Speed Press.
Funk, A., & Kaufman, K. (2011). Living Wild: Gardening, Cooking and Healing with Native Plants of the Sierra Nevada. Flicker Press.
Gómez, D. (1996). Palmas útiles: En la provincia de Pastaza, Amazonia ecuatoriana : manual práctico. Omaere : Abya-Yala.
Group, T. A. P. (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161(2), 105–121. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x
Gruca, M., van Andel, T. R., & Balslev, H. (2014). Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: A review. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 10, 60. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-10-60
Hadjichambis, A. CH., Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, D., Della, A., Elena Giusti, M., De Pasquale, C., Lenzarini, C., Censorii, E., Reyes Gonzales-Tejero, M., Patricia Sanchez-Rojas, C., Ramiro-Gutierrez, J. M., Skoula, M., Johnson, C., Sarpaki, A., Hmamouchi, M., Jorhi, S., El-Demerdash, M., El-Zayat, M., & Pieroni, A. (2008). Wild and semi-domesticated food plant consumption in seven circum-Mediterranean areas. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 59(5), 383–414. https://doi.org/10.1080/09637480701566495
Hall, K. C. (2006). Ethnobotany of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians: A Path to Sustaining Traditional Identity with an Emphasis on Medicinal Plant Use. wncln.wncln.org Library Catalog.
Hall, K. C. (2010). Ethnobotany of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians: A path to sustaining traditional identity with an emphasis on medicinal plant use. Emerald Wing Press.
Haynes, J., & McLaughlin, J. (2000). Edible palms and their uses. Univ. of Florida.
Hodgson, W. C. (2001). Food Plants of the Sonoran Desert. University of Arizona Press.
Hughes, P. (1977). Pueblo Indian cookbook: Recipes from the Pueblos of the American Southwest. Museum of New Mexico Press.
Ignace, M., Turner, N. J., & Peacock, S. L. (2016). Secwepemc people and plants: Research papers in Shuswap ethnobotany. Society of Ethnobiology.
Isaza, C., Bernal, R., & Howard, P. (2017). Use, Production and Conservation of Palm Fiber in South America: A Review. Journal of Human Ecology Journal of Human Ecology, 42(1), 69–93.
Jacknis, I. (Ed.). (2006). Food in California Indian Culture. University of Washington Press.
Jman Redzic, S. (2006). Wild Edible Plants and Their Traditional Use in the Human Nutrition in Bosnia‐Herzegovina. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 45(3), 189–232. https://doi.org/10.1080/03670240600648963
Jones, M. S., Jones, T. H., & English, J. J. (2014). The Pollination of Hexastylis naniflora in Cleveland County, North Carolina. Castanea, 79(2), 74–77. https://doi.org/10.2179/13-043
Joseph, L., Turner, N. J., Lantz, T. C., University of Victoria (B.C.), School of Environmental Studies, & University of Victoria (B.C.). (2012). Finding our roots ethnoecological restoration of lhasem (Fritillaria camschatcensis (L.) Ker-Gawl), an iconic plant food in the Squamish River Estuary, British Columbia. [University of Victoria]. http://hdl.handle.net/1828/4190
Jumbalaya, J. (2006). The essential acorn, hazelnut , and chestnut cookbook. J. Jumbalaya.
Kallas, J. (2010). Edible Wild Plants: Wild Foods From Dirt To Plate. Gibbs Smith.
Kane, C. W. (2011). Sonoran Desert Food Plants: Edible Uses for the Desert’s Wild Bounty (First). Lincoln Town Press.
Kane, C. W. (2013). Southern California Food Plants: Wild Edibles of the Valleys, Foothills, Coast, and Beyond. Lincoln Town Press.
Kane, C. W. (2016). Wild Edible Plants of Texas: A Pocket Guide to the Identification, Collection, Preparation, and Use of 60 Wild Plants of the Lone Star State (First edition). Lincoln Town Press.
Keegan, M. (1987). Southwest Indian cookbook. Clear Light Publishers.
Kelly, L. M. (2001). Taxonomy of Asarum Section Asarum (Aristolochiaceae). Systematic Botany, 26(1), 17–53. https://doi.org/10.1043/0363-6445-26.1.17
Lowry, J. (2014). California Foraging: 120 Wild and Flavorful Edibles from Evergreen Huckleberries to Wild Ginger. Timber Press.
Łuczaj, Ł. (2008). Archival data on wild food plants used in Poland in 1948. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 4(1), 4. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-4-4
Łuczaj, Ł. (2012). Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants of Slovakia. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 81(4), 245–255.
Łuczaj, Ł., & Pieroni, A. (2016). Nutritional Ethnobotany in Europe: From Emergency Foods to Healthy Folk Cuisines and Contemporary Foraging Trends. In Mediterranean Wild Edible Plants (pp. 33–56). Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-3329-7_3
Margolin, M. (1981). The Way we lived: California Indian Reminiscences, Stories, and Songs (1st ed). Heyday Books.
Meredith, L. (2014). Northeast foraging: 120 wild and flavorful edibles from beach plums to wineberries. Timber Press. http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=3410473
Meredith, L. (2016). The Forager’s Feast: How to Identify, Gather, and Prepare Wild Edibles. Countryman Press.
Murrell, Z. E. (2007). Ecological, Morphological, Micromorphological and Molecular Analyses of the Species in the Hexastylis Heterophylla Complex: A Report to the NC Department of Transportation. N.C. Dept. of Transportation, Research and Analysis Group.
Niethammer, C. J. (1999). American Indian cooking: Recipes from the Southwest. University of Nebraska Press.
Nyerges, C. (2014). Foraging California: Finding, Identifying, And Preparing Edible Wild Foods In California. Falcon Guides.
Ortiz, B. R., & Parker, J. F. (1996). It Will Live Forever: Traditional Yosemite Indian Acorn Preparation (2 Revised). Heyday Books.
Padgett, J. E. (2004). Biogeographical, Ecological, Morphological, and Micromorphological Analyses of the Species in the Hexastylis Heterophylla Complex: A Thesis.
Paniagua-Zambrana, N., Cámara-Leret, R., & Macía, M. J. (2015). Patterns of Medicinal Use of Palms Across Northwestern South America. Bot. Rev. The Botanical Review, 81(4), 317–415.
Pardo-de-Santayana, M., Pieroni, A., & Puri, R. K. (Eds.). (2010). Ethnobotany in the New Europe: People, Health and Wild Plant Resources. Berghahn Books.
Pardo-de-Santayana, M., Tardío, J., Blanco, E., Carvalho, A. M., Lastra, J. J., Miguel, E. S., & Morales, R. (2007). Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal): A comparative study. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 3(1), 27. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-3-27
Pojar, J., MacKinnon, A., Alaback, P., Antos, J., Goward, T., Lertzman, K., Pojar, R., Reed, A., Turner, N., & Vitt, D. (1994). Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast: Washington, Oregon, British Columbia & Alaska. B.C. Ministry of Forest and Lone Pine Pub.
Prendergast, H. D. V., & Sanderson, H. (2004). Britain’s Wild Harvest. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Rivera, D., Obón, C., Inocencio, C., Heinrich, M., Verde, A., Fajardo, J., & Palazón, J. A. (2007). Gathered Food Plants in the Mountains of Castilla–La Mancha (Spain): Ethnobotany and Multivariate Analysis. Economic Botany, 61(3), 269–289. https://doi.org/10.1663/0013-0001(2007)61[269:GFPITM]2.0.CO;2
Rock, J. H., Beckage, B., & Gross, L. J. (2004). Population recovery following differential harvesting of Allium tricoccum Ait. In the southern Appalachians. Biological Conservation, 116(2), 227–234. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(03)00193-9
Salmon, E. (2012). Eating the Landscape: American Indian Stories of Food, Identity, and Resilience (2nd ed.). University of Arizona Press.
Schafer, P. D. (1993). A Manual of Cherokee Herbal Remedies: History, Information, Identification, Medicinal Healing. [The University of Indiana]. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED396878
Séguret, S. G. (2016). Appalachian Appetite: Recipes from the Heart of America. Hatherleigh Press.
Sinn, B. T. (2015). Asarum chueyi (Aristolochiaceae), a new species from the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains of Tennessee and Virginia, USA. Phytotaxa, 224(1), 85–95. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.224.1.6
Sinn, B. T., Kelly, L. M., & Freudenstein, J. V. (2015). Phylogenetic relationships in Asarum: Effect of data partitioning and a revised classification. American Journal of Botany, 102(5), 765–779. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1400316
Slattery, J. (2016). Southwest Foraging: 117 Wild and Flavorful Edibles from Barrel Cactus to Wild Oregano. Timber Press.
Sohn, M. F. (1996). Mountain Country Cooking: A Gathering of the Best Recipes from the Smokies to the Blue Ridge (1st ed). St. Martin’s Press.
Sohn, M. F. (1998). Hearty Country Cooking: Savory Southern Favorites (1st St. Martin's Griffin ed.). St. Martin’s Griffin.
Sohn, M. F. (2005). Appalachian Home Cooking: History, Culture, and Recipes. University Press of Kentucky.
Sturtevant, L. E., & Hedrick, U. P. (1972). Sturtevant’s Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications.
Sylvester, O., & Avalos, G. (2009). Illegal Palm Heart (Geonoma edulis) Harvest in Costa Rican National Parks: Patterns of Consumption and Extraction. Economic Botany, 63(2), 179. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12231-009-9081-8
Sylvester, O., Avalos, G., & Fernández, N. C. (2012). Notes on the ethnobotany of Costa Rica’s palms. Palms, 56(4), 190–201.
Tardio, J., Pardo-De-Satayana, M., & Morales, R. (2006). Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants in Spain. BOJ Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 152(1), 27–71.
Thayer, S. (2006). The Forager’s Harvest: A Guide to Identifying, Harvesting, and Preparing Edible Wild Plants. Forager’s Harvest.
Thayer, S. (2017). Incredible Wild Edibles. Foragers Harvest Press.
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. (2016). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, n/a-n/a. https://doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385
Thompson, S. (1976). Wild food plants of the Sierra (Rev). Wilderness Press.
Timbrook, J. (2007). Chumash Ethnobotany: Plant Knowledge Among the Chumash People of Southern California (3rd printing edition). Heyday.
Turner, Nancy J., & Kuhnlein, H. (1991). Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Nutrition, Botany and Use. Routledge.
Turner, Nancy J. (1981). A gift for the taking: The untapped potential of some food plants of North American Native Peoples. Canadian Journal of Botany, 59(11), 2331–2357. https://doi.org/10.1139/b81-289
Turner, Nancy J. (1983). Ethnobotany of the Nitinaht Indians of Vancouver Island. Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Provincial Secretary and Govt. Services, Provincial Secretary : Govt. of Canada, Parks Canada, Western Region.
Turner, Nancy J. (2010a). Food Plants of Coastal First Peoples. Royal British Columbia Museum.
Turner, Nancy J. (2010b). Food Plants of Interior First Peoples. Royal British Columbia Museum.
Turner, Nancy J. (2010c). Plant Technology of First Peoples in British Columbia. Royal British Columbia Museum.
Turner, Nancy J, Davidson, F. E., & Enrico, J. (2004). Plants of Haida Gwaii = X̲aadaa gwaay guud gina k̲ʻaws (Skidegate) = X̲aadaa gwaayee guu ginn k̲ʻaws (Massett). Sono Nis Press.
Turner, Nancy J, Deur, D., & Mellott, C. R. (2011). “Up On the Mountain”: Ethnobotanical Importance of Montane Sites In Pacific Coastal North America. Etbi Journal of Ethnobiology, 31(1), 4–43.
Turner, Nancy J, Efrat, B. S., & British Columbia Provincial Museum. (1982). Ethnobotany of the Hesquiat Indians of Vancouver Island. British Columbia Provincial Museum.
Turner, Nancy J., Lepofsky, D., & Deur, D. (2013). Plant Management Systems of British Columbia’s First Peoples. BC Studies: The British Columbian Quarterly, 0(179), 107–133.
Turner, Nancy J., Łuczaj, Ł. J., Migliorini, P., Pieroni, A., Dreon, A. L., Sacchetti, L. E., & Paoletti, M. G. (2011). Edible and Tended Wild Plants, Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Agroecology. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 30(1–2), 198–225. https://doi.org/10.1080/07352689.2011.554492
Turner, Nancy J, & Royal British Columbia Museum. (2007). Plant technology of First Peoples in British Columbia. Royal BC Museum.
Turner, Nancy Jean. (1973). Plant taxonomic systems and ethnobotany of three contemporary Indian groups of the Pacific Northwest (Haida, Bella Coola, and Lillooet) [University of British Columbia]. https://circle.ubc.ca/handle/2429/42513
Vandervort-Sneed, J. (2008). Species delineation of two imperiled wild gingers (Asarum contracta and A. rhombiformis) using ecological, morphological, and molecular techniques: A thesis. Appalachian State University.
Veteto, J. R. (2010). Seeds of persistence [Doctoral Dissertation, University of Georgia]. http://ugakr-maint.libs.uga.edu/handle/123456789/8101?show=full
Vick, R. A. (2011). Cherokee Adaptation to the Landscape of the West and Overcoming the Loss of Culturally Significant Plants. American Indian Quarterly, 35(3), 394–417. JSTOR. https://doi.org/10.5250/amerindiquar.35.3.0394
Vizgirdas, R. S., & Rey-Vizgirdas, E. M. (2009). Wild Plants of the Sierra Nevada. University of Nevada Press.
Welch, J. R. (2013). Sprouting Valley: Historical Ethnobotany of the Northern Pomo from Potter Valley, California. Society of Ethnobiology.
Whereat-Phillips, P., & Turner, N. J. (2016). Ethnobotany of the Coos, Lower Umpqua, and Siuslaw Indians (1 edition). Oregon State University Press.
Wiles, B. (2016). Mountain States Foraging: 115 Wild and Flavorful Edibles from Alpine Sorrel to Wild Hops. Timber Press.
Wiltens, J. (1999). Edible and Poisonous Plants of Northern California. Wilderness Press.
Wiltens, J. S. (1988). Thistle Greens and Mistletoe: Edible and Poisonous Plants of Northern California. Wilderness Press.
Witthoft, J. (1947). An Early Cherokee Ethnobotanical Note. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 37(3), 73–75.