Plant Talk 8: Temperate Craft Plants
Hello plant enthusiasts! Feel free to skip the updates mostly local to Western North Carolina related events and move on to the class at hand about crafts below if you so desire…
The Southeastern Permaculture Gathering is coming up in a couple weeks. We could really use some more people to attend this typically full gathering. The SE Permaculture Gathering has had an incredibly beneficial impact on my life and education for the last 16 years... We will have plant/mushroom walks and try to expand the botanical/mycological inventory that already contains well over 300 species! Would love to see some of you fine folks there in a week and a half.
i will be doing a second video for the Herbal Academy focused on Plant Family Patterns in a couple weeks as well.
i gave my first keynote address ever at the 30th annual Wild Herb Weekend! The topic was Botanical Beverages of the World. i got a lot of good feedback though this particular talk is something i consider still a work in progress. This is a conference that i have attended for close to a decade in various capacities. Previous keynotes represent some very inspirational people to me and others including Bevin Claire, Jim Duke, Kathleen Maier, Matthew Wood, Patricia Kyritsi Howell, Phyllis Light, and Tradd Cotter among others. Nice to be included in such a esteemed group!
i have been working a good bit for Alan Muskat and his organization No Taste Like Home doing wild edible tours for people from all over the country recently. Alan is seriously one of the country’s most famous foragers as he has a knack for getting press from the likes of the New York Times, NPR, USA Today, Smithsonian Magazine, Southern Living, let alone the local outlets like Mountain Xpress and The Asheville Citizen Times and many more.
Alan also has a training program that teaches people how to teach people foraging based off of his super successful format. People from the training program help with the tours as part of the curriculum. These tours have a focus on fungi as well as plants.
Many things from the Asteraceae are blooming including Cosmos, Echinacea, Dahlias, Goldenrod (Solidago spp.), Green headed Coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata), Mexican Sunflower (Tithonia sp.), Quickweed (Galinsoga spp.), and Zinnias. Other things blooming include Bee Balms (Monarda spp.) Chaste Tree (Vitex agnus-castus), Gladiolus, Globe Amaranth (Gomphrena spp.) Hydrangea, Pigweeds (Amaranthus spp.), Sumac (Rhus spp.), and Sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum). What's blooming around you?
Temperate Plants for Crafts
This class is largely based on my graduate research, like many classes before. Therefore, the focus is mostly on the craft plants of Appalachia. i hope that over time further research by me and commentary by others may flesh out especially useful craft plants of other places as well. Much overlap for other temperate areas will already be apparent too…Without further adieu….
The rich craft tradition of Appalachia was surveyed quite thoroughly by the 1930s (Eaton, 1973). Crafts originally provided a means to the end of functional necessity. With modernization, crafts became a commodity that allowed people to celebrate the days of old. The push to make crafts into a large scale business sometimes had deleterious consequences (Becker, 1998). Many women and children were exploited to perform repetitive tasks for little compensation. Unfortunately, many people are still abused in such a way in various areas of the world to this day…
Crafts are still a source of pride for people in the Appalachian mountains and supply one of the few remaining manufacturing industries. Homemade crafts provide a greater sense of place for residents. A renaissance of crafts at the home level might reduce dependence on cheaply made products from afar, which often depend on exploited labor (Trestain, 1998).
This class describes a vast array of plants that have been used for various crafts in Appalachia. One goal of such a list is to encourage a further resurgence in Appalachian crafting as an industry but also in the home. The knowledge of what part of the plant to use, how to prepare it and time to harvest it are all essential details that can be found in the multitude of resources that are cited herein.
The diversity of craft industries traditionally practiced in Appalachia is extensive. A short list includes textiles, basketry, toys, musical instruments, furniture making, kitchen implements, pottery and other assorted knickknacks. Many types of dyes have been used to color textiles and wood products as well.
Important centers for the pursuit of crafts in Appalachia have included Berea College, John C. Campbell Folk School, Penland School for Crafts, The Crossnore School, Pine Mountain Settlement School, and various places around Asheville NC (Eaton, 1973). The Biltmore Estate near Asheville was a particularly strong supporter of the crafts movement in times past. The Southern Highland Craft Guild has served as one of the main organizations for jurying art work and presenting a quality product to the public. The Appalachian Regional Commission was a strong supporter of the development of crafts (ARC Tourism Council, 2003). Unfortunately it has been defunded by the Federal Government. The U.S. Forest Service has also provided support for the development of craft industry (Nelson & Williamson, 1970). The Center for Craft Creativity and Design often in collaboration with Warren Wilson College is another good resource.
The manufacture of textiles has a long tradition in Appalachia. The typical plants that provided fiber include Cotton (Gossypium spp.) and Flax (Linum usitatissimum). Wool was also commonly used as well. Appalachians of European descent used spinning wheels and looms. Native Americans in the area originally did much of their weaving by hand to process fiber into textiles.
Other plants of the Appalachian region that can be used for fiber include Dogbanes (Apocynum spp.) Butterflyweeds (Asclepias spp.), Cattails (Typha spp.), Tulip Magnolia (Liriodendron tulipifera), Basswoods (Tilia spp.) and Yuccas (Yucca spp.) (Tim Manney, personal communication, October, 2009 and Doug Elliott personal conversation November, 2015).
The history of natural dyes is a fascinating one (Robinson, 1969). Many dyes need a substance called a mordant to act effectively. Mordants serve to prepare the material to take color and also help ensure color fastness. Color fastness applies to durability both due to the effects of washing and exposure to light. Some dyes are more color fast to light while others are more color fast to washing (Nicholson & Clovis, 1967). The use of different mordants also may give alternate colors from the same plant (Cannon & Cannon, 2003). Dyes that don’t need fixing, especially through toxic metal mordants such as chrome and tin, represent a potentially more sustainable alternative. These dyes require less foreign ingredients and have less chance of negative health effects. However, the dyes must first function well and hold their color if they may be considered sustainable. Some mordants such as tannins, iron, vinegar and even urine offer less toxic alternatives to heavy metals. A couple specific resources are available to explore the chemistry of natural dyes specifically (Epp, 1995a, 1995b).
The most important traditional dye sources in Appalachia were Indigo and Madder (Eaton, 1973). Indigo (Indigofera tinctoria and spp.) was combined with straw and sumac (Rhus) to make a dye cake for the color blue (Eaton, 1973). The cake was kept in an iron pot that was used continuously sometimes for decades. This process did not require a mordant. Indigo is also one of the most famous dye stuffs in the world (Nilda Callanaupa Alvarez, 2012; Balfour-Paul, 2000; Gerber, 1977; Van Stralen, 1993).
Madder (Rubia tinctorum) was used by the Egyptians and the Spanish Moors and then introduced to the rest of the world by Holland. It produces various shades of red. Combined with Black Oak (quercitron) it produces a bright orange. It works on wool or cotton but both materials must be mordanted first. A wild type of madder is said to be native to Appalachia (Eaton, 1973). This is probably a plant in the Galium genus. Madder is another famous dyestuff worldwide (Chenciner, 2000; Greenfield, 2005; Murphy, 2005; Van Stralen, 1993).
Several areas of the world have specific resources in regards to natural dyes. One includes information for Japan (Nakano & Stephan, 1982). Another includes dyes from Hawaii (Krohn-Ching, 1980). While another is specific for the plants of the Northwest U.S (Green, 1975). The traditions relted to Andean textiles have been studied more than a lot of other cultures (Nilda Callañaupa Alvarez, Franquemont, & Coca, 2013; d’Harcourt, 2002; Mayolo, 1989; Meisch, 1997; Young-Sánchez & Simpson, 2006).
Natural dyes are sometimes described as not holding their color as well as artificial ones (Dalby, 1985). However, when natural dyes fade, they retain the shade of the original color and a muted softness that many have found appealing (Eaton, 1973). Novel dye stuffs that don’t require mordants have at times been described (Samuel & Higgins, 1976).
Dyes from lichens in the Peltigera, Usnea, Rocella, Cladonia and Urcealaria genera have also been recorded (Krochmal & Krochmal, 1974). A few references for using lichens as dyes specifically do exist as well (Bolton, 1972; K. D. Casselman, 1994, 2001, K. L. Casselman, 2001a, 2001b; Gordon, 1980; Lindsay, 1855; McClure, 1992; McGrath, 1977). A few references refer to dyes from Mushrooms too (Bessette & Bessette, 2001; M. Rice, 2007; M. C. Rice & Beebee, 1980).
Several details are important to the dyeing process. Parts used may include roots, stems, leaves, fruit, bark, seeds or the whole plant. The time of year when the products are gathered is sometimes important. Some materials must be used at once, whereas others may be dried and stored. Wood ashes are sometimes also employed in the process.
Different dyes and different processes are appropriate for different fibers. Indigo and Madder are suitable for both wools and cotton. Wool is easier to dye than cotton and both are easier to dye than anything else (Leechman, 1943). However, other natural fabrics may be dyed including Jute (Corchorus spp.), Linen and Silk. Synthetic fibers will not accept natural dyes (Samuel & Higgins, 1976). All fabrics need to be washed prior to dyeing.
Common names of dyestuffs that were cited by Eaton (1973) and not recognized by me or questionable on identity include Common dock (Rumex or Arctium?), Gorse bark (Ulex europaeus?), Bog myrtle (Myrica or Morella?), Iron wood, Kidney vetch, Meadow rue (Thalictrum?), Saw-wort, Stone crottle and Fustic (Maclura tinctoria?). Natural dyer Jenny Liles (1990) recorded many common names and traditional dye recipes from the past that might be of interest to historical period researchers. Types of dye stuffs, dye recipes and weaving patterns from the early 1800s have been collected by researchers as well (Bronson & Bronson, 1977).
Natural dyeing has an effusive literature that is perhaps a testament to its attraction and popularity (Adrosko, 1971; Arañas Spinners and Weavers Guild, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1973; Bliss, 1993; Böhmer, 2002; Buccigross, 2006; Callahan, 2010; Castino, 1974; Crook, 2007; Dalby, 1985; Davenport, 1976; Davidson, 1974; Dean, 1994, 1999, 2009; Delamare & Francois, 2000; Dronsfield & Edmonds, 2001; Dyer, 1976; Fereday, 2003; Flint, 2008; Hallett, 1992; Hardman & Pinhey, 2009; Kierstead, 1972; Kramer, 1972; Lambert & Kendall, 2010; Lathrop-Smit, 1978; Leechman, 1943; Lesch, 1970; Maile, 1969; McRae, 1993; Milner, 1971; Palmer, 1980; Reagan, 2003; Richards & Tyrl, 2005; Rudkin, 2007; Schultz, 1975, 1975; Senisi, 2001; Sugar & Myers, 2002; Thomas, 1980; Wenstob, Zarski, & Shawkense, 1978; Wickens, 1983)
i have created a master list of dye plants as one product of my research. An analysis of the literature shows that many plants only appear singularly or within a few sources. Potential for further research includes compiling a list of all dye plants ever cited with requisite information about mordants, colors, nativity, color fastness, invasiveness, plant longevity, and other pertinent information. If only i could secure some funding for such an endeavor!
Major plant families that dye plants come from include the Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Rosaceae, Ericaceae and the Betulaceae. The species name tinctoria or tinctorius implies that it is a plant used for dyeing and is always a good marker when looking through a list of plants.
Woodworking also has a long history in Appalachia and throughout the world. The trees most often used include Oak (Quercus spp.), Ash (Fraxinus spp.), Hickory (Carya spp.), Maple (Acer spp.), Walnut (Juglans spp.), Cherry (Prunus spp.), Linden (Tilia spp.), Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) and Pine (Pinus spp.). Eaton (1973) provided an example of the multiple uses of one type of tree by stating that hickory was used for mauls, tool handles, basket handles and for splints in basket making. He went on to say how hickory made good firewood that produced a useful soft light-gray ash. This ash could then be used for homemade soap and as an ingredient for dyes. Hickory bark is also exceptional for seat bottoms. Hickory poles can be used in broom making. The inner bark of hickory has been used for dyeing. Green wood of hickory has been employed in curing ham and the wood was also added to maple syrup for flavoring.
A number of different trees have been used historically in Appalachian chair making. Most people would employ sugar maple (Acer saccharum) or Ash (Fraxinus) for the posts, Hickory (Carya) for the rounds and either White Oak (Quercus alba) or Hickory splints for the seats (Eaton, 1973). Other chair makers would employ Black Walnut (Juglans nigra), White Walnut (Juglans regia), Mulberry (Morus), Yellow locust (Robinia sp.?), Beech (Fagus grandifolia) and Birch (Betula). Walnut was used for rockers because it caused them to cling to the floor rather than creep like maple or hickory might do (Eaton, 1973).
Appalachian craftspeople are known for a diversity of other wood products. In the mid 1800s physician Francis Porcher (1970) offered a detailed account of useful woods and other plant items for crafts. Bowls were often made from Walnut (Juglans), Maples (Acer spp.), Cherries (Prunus) and Cedar (?) in Appalachia (Eaton, 1973). Boxes were made from the same and also Holly (Ilex) (Eaton, 1973). i have heard educator and earthskills enthusiast Natalie Bogwalker call Holly “spoonwood” and another friend refer to it as Appalachian ivory. Many other items for the kitchen were traditionally carved from wood as well. Carved figures were made from Apple (Malus) and other close grain woods. Tool handles are traditionally made from Ash, Hickory and Maple. Bobbins from Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) and Dogwood (Cornus florida) are traditional too (Eaton, 1973). Birdhouses and bird feeders are made in a multitude of ways from various types of woods. Different birds also flourish from different styles of houses and feeders (Adams, 2013; Kress, 2006; Roth, 1998).
Blow guns from native cane (Arundinaria gigantea) are an indigenous tradition as is crafting spoons, canes, forks and napkin rings from mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) (Eaton, 1973). A 1952 study delineated the contributions of Cherokees to Appalachian crafts of which most were wood products (Arnold, 1952). Cherry (Prunus) and Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) were the major woods used by people in the study. Novel woods not mentioned already but not understood to scientific name are Coca bola, Bass-lynn, Lignum vitae (Guaiacum?) and Locust. The use of 23 woods was documented in total (Arnold, 1952).
One novel application of a wood product entailed the use of Witchazel (Hamamelis virginiana) shavings to fill bed mattresses (Eaton, 1973). The Foxfire project described a money making modern example of woodworking in Rabun Co. GA. The artist used no dyes but employed various woods for different colors. Primary materials employed were Maple (Acer sp.), Walnut (Juglans), Cedar (?), Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) and occasional exotic woods as well (Johnson, 2004).
i would like to fill out this section more as time goes on. i am personally a peace loving vegetarian. That said i realize that everything in the world is food for something else and hunting can be an honorable way to go about providing sustenance. Animals like deer and turkeys are becoming overpopulated where i live and hunting them may help preserve the environment from being denuded as well as provide high quality meat. In regards to using weapons against people i am torn…Of course the ideal would be to have peace on earth forever. However, we are so far from the reality of that right now with the potential for things to get much much worse. Many areas of the developed western world are largely buffered from political problems like those from the Ukraine, Africa, the Middle East and many other places. However if further disruptions occur from climate, pollution, economics, resource depletion, natural disasters etc i think many would be taken aback at how primal Lord of the Flies style our society might become rather quickly. i personally hope to be really good at a bow and arrow before that time may come to pass just in case. In that regard coppiced plants have long been used to form the shaft of arrows. Multiflora Rose (Rosa multiflora) and Sourwood (Oxydendrum arboretum) are a couple woods that can be used in this regard. Darts for blow guns could be fashioned from Locust and Thistle (Bauman, 2004). Eustace Conway of Turtle Island has continued to fashion items in such a way up to the modern day. The blow gun itself can be formed from Rivercane (Arundinaria gigantea). Chippewa uses for Black Gum (Nyssa sylvatica) include tool handles, mauls and war clubs (Moerman, 1998).
Whittling and Carving
Whittling and carving has often been taken up by people in Appalachia at a very young age (Johnson, 2004). Plants served as the inspiration for various motifs (Eaton, 1973). Grains such as Wheat (Triticum), Rye (Lolium) and Oats (Avena) as well as Pine cones (Pinus spp.), Maple leaves (Acer spp.), Galax (Galax urceolata), Dogwood (Cornus spp.) leaves and various blossoms and berries have served as inspiration.
Barron Brown is a local wood carver outside Asheville, NC. At the Florida Earthskills gathering and the Firefly Gathering near Barnardsville, NC, he has introduced me to the wonder of spoon making. i now have a mission to carve spoons out of as many types of non-toxic wood that i can get my hands on. So far i have made spoons from Tulip Tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana), Basswood (Tilia americana), and Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra). Barron also gifted me with spoons made out of “Fat Lighter” the inner wood of (Pinus sp.) and Sabal Palm (Sabal sp.). My next spoon will be out of Empress Tree (Paulownia tomentosa) which is a highly prized wood in Asia but an exotic invasive in Appalachia. Eventually my spoon collection will hopefully grow to over 100 species with each having its own particular ritual use as well!
Appalachian carvers have used various types of wood to represent a vast array of animals and activities. Common woods used included Apple (Malus spp.), Basswood (Tilia sp.), Holly (Ilex spp.), Maple (Acer spp.), Walnut (Juglans spp.), Pine (Pinus spp.), Poplar (Populus spp.), Buckeye (Aesculus spp.), and Cherry (Prunus spp.). Carved animals have included dogs, chickens, lambs, mules, ducks, pigs, goats, geese, peacocks, bears, blue jays, canaries and cardinals. Many activities have been depicted as well including haying, sorghum making, grain sowing, dancing, preaching, wood splitting, cooking, plowing and hog killing.
Fire is one of the first technologies developed by our ancestors. Yet how many people could start a fire today without the aid of petrochemicals and a convenient tool like lighters or matches? Bow drill fire starting is an art practiced at all the Earthskills gatherings i have gone to. The kit consists of a fire board a drill and a bow. Various plants are used to produce these items including Basswood (Tilia americana) for the fireboard and Yucca (Yucca filimentosa) for the spindle. A number of fungi have been used to carry embers and as tinder for fire as well including Fomes fomentarius and the famous medicinal Chaga (Inonotus obliquus).
Poppets used to be a common Appalachian toy. These dolls were made out of Buckeye (Aesculus) because of its smooth texture. Poke berry (Phytolacca americana) was used to color the cheeks (Eaton, 1973). Corn husks or corn shuck dolls are another type of typical Appalachian toy and known from other places as well (Ortiz & Parker, 1996; Rogowski & DeWeese, 1975; Wendorff, 1973). Sometimes the corn shucks have been dyed with natural dyes. Action figures have been portrayed as well including scenes of milking, sledding, horseback riding, cattle driving, butter churning, etc. Scenes have been constructed to recall fairy tales, the nativity, and barnyard vignettes. Miniature furniture was also constructed. Mahogany has been used for miniature chairs, in addition to the usual woods mentioned above, (Eaton, 1973). Dolls made of dried Apples, Sweet potatoes, Cucumbers and Hickory nuts are traditional constructions as well (Aldrich & Young, 1971; Eaton, 1973; Wigginton, 1980). An extensive collection of toys and how they were made were featured in one of the Foxfire books (Wigginton, 1980).
Fiddles have been fashioned from wood, but also of corn stalks and gourds (Wigginton, 1980). Curly maple (Acer) is one wood of choice for the construction of fiddles (Eaton, 1973). Banjos, which are originally from Africa, were also constructed from gourds (Carlin, 2016; Conway, 1995; Mazow, 2005; Wigginton, 1975). Horns, bugles and drums have been made from Gourds as well. Dulcimer construction traditionally depends on Walnut (Juglans) though occasionally also Birch (Betula) Maple (Acer), Holly (Ilex spp.) and Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) Eaton (1973). Both settlers and Native Americans have used cane (Arundinaria spp.) to make flutes and pipes .
Broom sedge (Andropogon virginicus), Wheat (Triticum aestivum), Corn husks (Zea mays), Corn stalks, Rye straw (Lolium sp.), Willows (Salix spp.), Rushes (Juncus spp.), Rivercane (Arundinaria gigantea), Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.), Pine (Pinus spp.) inner bark, Hickory bark (Carya spp.), Willow bark, and Pine needles are all traditional for basketry. Splint baskets commonly come from Oak (Quercus spp.), Hickory (Carya spp.) and Ash (Fraxinus spp.). Other trees that have documented use include Elms (Ulmus spp.), Northern white Cedar (Thuja occidentalis), Buckeye (Aesculus), Basswood (Tilia), Boxelder (Acer negundo) and Cypress (Hart & Hart, 1978).
Exotic materials like Raffia (Raphia farinifera) and Reeds were only employed on occasion in Appalachia. Basket dyeing mostly only became a practice with the resurgence of the arts and crafts movement. The organizers of Allanstand cottage industries, in Asheville, NC, were pioneers of commercial basket dyeing (Eaton, 1973). However, Cherokee basket makers use dyes on occasion including Bloodroot, Butternut and Black Walnut (Brosi, 2010). The Cherokee tribe has some information on craft traditions on their website and that of the preservation foundation as well.
Natural dyes were historically employed more than commercial ones and sometimes came from the same plant source as the basket. Hindman settlement school is particularly known for baskets. Dyes sources included Hemlock (Tsuga) and Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) (Eaton, 1973).
Exotic invasive plants may be employed for the use of basketry as well. Wisteria (Wisteria spp.), Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), Oriental Bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), English Ivy (Hedera helix) and Kudzu (Pueraria montana) are plants with documented use (C. Hart & D. Hart, 1978; TerBeest, 1988). However, seeds of exotics should not be spread in the harvesting for such purposes. Using exotic invasives is more favorable than stripping the forest of slow growing natives such as Grape vines (Vitis spp.) and Dutch man’s pipe (Aristolochia spp.).
Many other materials have also been employed for basket making. Three grasses that are mentioned explicitly for basketry are tall Redtop (Tridens flavus syn. Triodia flava), Broombeard (Andropogon virginicus) and common Reed (Phragmites australis syn Phragmites communis) (C. Hart & D. Hart, 1978). Other materials are the soft Rush (Juncus effusus) various Irises (Iris pseudacorus, I. sibirica, I. versicolor) and Daylilies (Hemerocallis fulva) (C. Hart & D. Hart, 1978). Forsythia (Forsythia) is a common landscape plant that has been listed for basketry use (TerBeest, 1988). Cattails (Typha spp.) are yet another material useful for basketry as well (Gallinger & Benson, 1975).
Basket making is a universal and very diverse field in human culture. Allanstand Cottage industries alone made around 40 different styles at one point (Eaton, 1973). Some basket styles have whimsical and imaginative names and may become family heirlooms. Particular patterns have been passed down from generation to generation and sometimes were endemic to certain locales (Hill, 1997; Irwin, 1982; Stephenson, 1977; Trestain, 1998; Weaver, 1971).
Basket maker Charlene Trestain (1998) researched the relation of various cultures to Appalachian willow work and how it relates to sustainability and sense of place. Basket Willow (Salix viminalis), Crack Willow (Salix fragilis), American Willows (Salix spp.), and Almond Willow (Salix amygdaloides) are described as the most useful types. American willow is apparently the most used species in the world for basketry. However, the tradition of willow basket making is thought to have come from Europe (Trestain, 1998). Basket making has been a featured workshop at the annual Firefly Gathering outside Asheville, NC over the last few years with crafters such as Nancy Gildersleeve, James Price, Mateo Ryall, Emily Jernigan. People that Emily cites as her teachers of basketry include Emma Jackson Garrett Peggy Patrick, JoAnn Kelly Catsos, April Stone Dahl, April Winchell, Zac Fitipaldi and Louise Langsner.
The Cherokee mostly used White Oak (Quercus alba), River Cane (Arundinaria gigantea) and Japanese Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) for basket making according to one study (Arnold, 1952). These woods were often dyed in preparation for basket construction. The Cherokee styles initially differed from techniques brought over from Europe. However, over time the styles sometimes blended together (Trestain, 1998). Researcher Sarah Hill (1997) completed a more modern in depth analysis of Cherokee basket making traditions. She noted that the use of Maple was incorporated into the three materials mentioned above while many style innovations happened in the mid 1900s to improve marketability. There is another book resource for Cherokee basket traditions as well (Fariello, 2009). One resource looks specifically at the use of White Oak in Appalachian baskets (Law & Taylor, 1991).
The sense of smell sometimes triggers memories like nothing else will. The craft of making potpourri crosses into the realm of aromatherapy that is yet another subject all its own (Bell, 2002; Keville, 2009; Keville & Green, 2008; Price & Price, 2011). Potpourri may be of a dry type or a moist type. Moist types tend to keep their scent longer. The same plants are employed for both (Fettner, 1977).
Suitable plants that may be grown in Appalachia and the temperate world in general include Sweet Annie (Artemisia annua), Rose (Rosa spp.), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), and many plants in the mint family. Good fragrant rose species include Rosa centifolia, R. × damascena, and R. gallica. Violets (Viola spp.), Magnolias (Magnolia spp.), and other plants are used to add bulk, form, and color to dried collections. Lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla syn Lippia graveolens) and Rose Geranium (Pelargonium capitatum) are both typical houseplants that may be employed. Potpourri makers use Eastern red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) and Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) to provide aromatic oils. The Lichens mislabeled commonly as Oak moss (Evernia prunastri) and Reindeer moss (Cladonia rangiferina) are used in powder form to fix scents. Calamus root (Acorus calamus) is a native or naturalized plant that is used to fix scent similar to the exotic Orris root (Iris germanica var. florentina) (Fettner, 1977).
Other exotic substances are typically used in combination with the ones mentioned above. Some other plants used include Cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp. and Cassia spp.), Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), Allspice (Pimenta dioica) and Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans). Gums and resins of exotic origin used to fix scents include Frankincense, Myrrh, Balsam of Peru, Balsam of Tolu, Storax, and Gum Benzoin. A type of storax might be found from the Appalachian native sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) though this is not mentioned in the literature. i wonder if potential for using native resins from Pines, Spruces, and other plants may exist. Scents of animal origin including musk from the Musk deer, ambergris from the Sperm whale and castorium from the Civit cat are all often used to add complexity and further fix smell (Fettner, 1977).
Temperate aromatic plants tend to fall into the Mint (Lamiaceae), Aster (Asteraceae), Carrot (Apiaceae) and Lily families (Liliaceae) (Genders, 2001). Some outliers include the already mentioned Rose Geranium (Pelargonium capitatum) in the Geraniaceae, Lemon Verbena (Aloysia triphylla) in the Verbenaceae, Roses (Rosa spp.) in the Rosaceae, Sweet flag (Acorus calamus) in the Araceae as well as Sweet Woodruff (Galium odoratum) in the Rubiaceae. Many fragrant plants can be grown in the Appalachian region (Bayard & Pesch, 1992).
Corn is useful for a multitude of purposes. Some examples not mentioned already include its use to make doormats, mattresses, screens, fans, napkin rings, bracelets, hatbands, flowers, small fruits, vegetables, rope, necklaces, picture frames, toy guns, animals and hats (Eaton, 1973; Wigginton, 1980). Corn cobs are famous as a material for pipe making. The stringing of popped corn and other produce for decorations as traditional Christmas ornamentation is well known.
Various other assorted uses of the local Appalachian flora have also been employed. Chestnut (Castanea dentata), Tulip Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) and other barks have been used as house siding. Tulip poplar siding still remains popular today especially in the area of Linville Falls, NC. An Appalachian practice of arranging seeds, pods, berries, leaves and cones into interesting forms carries the whimsical name of “wood pretties” (Weaver, 1971).
The use of wood for heat is a type of craft as well. Different woods tend to have various qualities in regards to splitting and heat efficiency. Shagbark and other Hickories are choice as well as Black Birch, Beech, Sugar Maple and Oak whereas Red Maple, Sycamore and Elm are not so great (Vivian, 1976). Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is legendarily great firewood where i live. Pine should only be burned as kindling and a last resort as the resins make it go up quick and can built up as creosote and potentially lead to chimney fires (Vivian, 1976).
Wreathes represent a tangible and marketable way to arrange craft items in a portable fashion. Conifers and Hollies are a couple classic backbones. Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus)
Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) was often employed on a commercial scale to tan leather. Gourds (Cucurbita spp.) and (Lagenaria siceraria) were used to make dippers as well as other items already mentioned.
Many other fanciful items can be created from other native and naturalized materials growing in Appalachia. Cattails (Typha spp.), Jimson Weed (Datura stramonium), Rose hips (Rosa spp.), Teasels (Dipsacus fullonum), Sweet gum balls (Liquidambar styraciflua), and Willow galls from (Salix spp.) all offer potential for the imaginative crafter (Aldrich & Young, 1971). All manner of nuts, cones and seeds may be employed as well. Many such items can be used in combination with fruits, suet, peanut butter and molasses to craft bird feeders (Roth, 1998). One author in Foxfire 12 describes the process of making rose beads from petals (Hughes, 2004).
A U.S. Forest Service publication contains 26 minor craft plants and 32 types of major craft plants harvested mostly from the wild in the Appalachian region (Nelson & Williamson, 1970). The major plants listed are mostly used for greenery around Christmas and include various members of the Pine (Pinaceae), Holly (Aquifoliaceae) and Rhododendron (Ericaceae) families. Other plants mentioned include those with attractive fruits such as Oaks (Quercus spp.) and Sweet Gums (Liquidambar styraciflua). Boxwoods (Buxus sp.) are also described for their foliage as well as their part in the Appalachian nursery industry.
Non-timber forest products
The term Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) is used to define items that come from the forest but not from sawn lumber. These products typically fall into four categories: edible, specialty wood based, floral/decorative and medicinal (Chamberlain, Bush, Hammett, & Araman, 2002). Representatives of the U.S. Forest service sometimes use the term special forest products (SFPs) (Emery, Ginger, Newman, & Giammusso, 2002). However, the term NTFP seems to have the most traction with the public and the literature. Many craft items mentioned above fall under such classifications.
Appalachia has a rich history in the use of NTFP items. Only recently however, has the prevalence of use, economic potential and impact on the environment become known. Researchers for the Forest service have started to investigate the phenomenon of NTFP harvesting on federal lands in just the last few years. The harvest of NTFPs represents a multi-million dollar industry for just a few choice products alone. The U.S. Forest Service commissioned a report characterizing the gatherers for the whole eastern part of the U.S. (Emery et al., 2002). An economic analysis of NTFPs in southwestern Virginia has also been published (Greene, Hammett, & Kant, 2000). The Forest Service has also looked at NTFPs in the U.S. as a whole (McClain & Jones, 2005). Researchers A. L. Hammett and James Chamberlain have produced a plethora of publications dealing with this important subject over the last ten years (Frey & Chamberlain, 2016; Kruger & Chamberlain, 2015). Still, much study remains to be done on the role of NTFPs in Appalachia and around the world.
Dried flowers as crafts
Dried flowers for arrangements offer another mode of incorporating nature into crafts (Hillier & Hilton, 1986; Kraska, 1995; Petelin, 1988). Many of the best dried flowers are not native or naturalized in Appalachia but can be easily grown as annuals. Some examples include Statice (Limonium spp.), Globe Amaranth (Gomphrena spp.), Celosia (Celosia spp.) Pigweed (Amaranthus spp.) and Strawflower (Helichrysum spp.). Some plants will naturalize locally without seeming to spread much such as Poppies (Papaver somniferum), Love in a Mist (Nigella damascena) and Larkspur (Delphinium sp.). Choice native and naturalized plants include many members of the Grass (Poaceae), Mustard (Brassicaceae), Mint (Lamiaceae), Amaranth (Amaranthaceae) and Aster (Asteraceae) families.
Fresh flowers represent another type of craft industry for Appalachia. Many traditional cut flowers are annuals that are neither native nor naturalized in this area. Some choice examples include Zinnias (Zinnia spp.), Butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii), Dianthus (Dianthus spp.), Red hot Poker (Kniphofia uvaria) Lupines (Lupinus spp.) and Bells of Ireland (Moluccella laevis). Lawrence Griffith (2008) conducted extensive research on the flower types used in the early period of American establishment. This work may be of assistance to people trying to recreate historical period gardens. Flower farmer Lynn Byczynski (1997) wrote a very good modern guide to growing flowers for market. Choice cut flowers that are native and naturalized tend to occur in the Mint (Lamiaceae), Aster (Asteraceae), Carrot (Apiaceae), Amaranth (Amaranthaceae), Grass (Poaceae), Buttercup (Ranunculaceae), Brassica (Brassicaceae) and Lily (Liliaceae) families. How to arrange flowers is and art of its own of course.
Overview of Appalachian Craft Plants
Trees are the most useful plants for crafts. Close behind these are corn (Zea mays) and Gourds (Cucurbita spp.). Hundreds of plants have a history of use as natural dyes. Looking through craft books of old brings to mind the amount of time necessary to create some of the projects formerly made.
It would be hard to label some crafts as profitable in an economic sense without marketing such products to a high class clientele with considerable disposable income. Nonetheless, even some very time consuming projects might still be considered profitable in the energetic, social, and psychospiritual sense when carried out under the auspices of hobbies and practiced with family and friends. The use of crafts with children in particular is an age old way of connecting them with the natural world and developing imagination. Taking time to slow down and appreciate the abundance and diversity of the natural world is something that is beneficial for all. Therefore, crafts can provide therapy and meditation as well as good times and possibly financial income (Platt, 1996).
The diversity of Appalachian flora offers an almost limitless supply of potential for the conscientious and creative crafter. Attention to using items that are in large supply and not spreading exotic invasives such as Oriental Bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus) are essential aspects of making such a practice sustainable. The plants enumerated here only hint at the diversity that denizens of Appalachia have employed in the pursuit of crafts. However, those listed also probably reflect a large quantity of the most preferred plants for various uses and thereby may offer a starting point for potential crafters and further research.
For the next class we will cover families of Poisonous plants and it will be posted around August 8th
Below are items to think about/comment on. Please write me directly at email@example.com or comment at Facebook group
I WOULD REALLY LOVE TO HEAR WHAT YOU HAVE TO SAY!!!
Check out this great link on natural dyes by the Forest Service http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/ethnobotany/dyes.shtml
- Make a list of the plants around you that you can use for crafts and share that info with some people
- Use this knowledge to actually create something for yourself or someone special.
-Look up some of the families mentioned in this post in Botany in a Day and share some information about them with the group or provide information from your personal experience
- Attend a workshop or a class and write up a brief description of plants or information learned.
- Post any clear photos of question plants to Facebook or send in an email.
Praises to all that have donated to the cause!!! i encourage everyone reading this to donate as they are able financially, commentarialy, or energetically... Your contributions greatly help me continue this crucial work of ethnobotanical research and education. Please let me know your thoughts in general and any way i can help this class serve you best.
Adams, G. M. (2013). Gardening for the birds: how to create a bird-friendly backyard. Portland, Or.: Timber Press.
Adrosko, R. J. (1971). Natural Dyes and Home Dyeing (formerly Titled: Natural Dyes in the United States). New York: Dover Publications.
Aldrich, D., & Young, G. (1971). Creating with Cattails, Cones, and Pods. Great Neck, NY: Hearthside Press.
Alvarez, N. C. (2012). Tradiciones textiles de Chinchero, herencia viva = Textile traditions of Chinchero: a living heritage. Cusco, Peru; Loveland, Colo.: Centro de Textiles Traditionales del Cusco ; Thrums.
Alvarez, N. C., Franquemont, C., & Coca, J. (2013). Faces of Tradition: Weaving Elders of the Andes. Thrums Books.
Arañas Spinners and Weavers Guild, Albuquerque, New Mexico. (1973). Dyeing with Natural Materials. Albuquerque, NM: The Guild.
ARC Tourism Council. (2003). ARC | Roadmap for Appalachian Tourism and Craft. Retrieved April 21, 2009, from http://www.arc.gov/index.do?nodeId=1901
Arnold, D. A. (1952). Some Recent Contributions of the Cherokee Indians of North Carolina to the Crafts of the Southern Highlands. The University of Tennessee.
Balfour-Paul, J. (2000). Indigo. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers.
Bauman, R. (2004). Falling Flowers: An Interview with the Chilotsky’s. In K. C. Collins & A. Cheek (Eds.) (pp. 377–389). New York: Anchor Books.
Bayard, T., & Pesch, B. (Eds.). (1992). Gardening For Fragrance. New York: Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
Becker, J. S. (1998). Selling Tradition: Appalachia and the Construction of an American Folk, 1930-1940. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Bell, K. L. (2002). Holistic Aromatherapy for Animals: A Comprehensive Guide to the Use of Essential Oils & Hydrosols with Animals. Findhorn Press.
Bessette, A. R., & Bessette, A. E. (2001). The Rainbow Beneath My Feet: A Mushroom Dyer’s Field Guide (First Ed.). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
Bliss, A. (1993). North American Dye Plants. Loveland, CO: Interweave Press.
Böhmer, H. (2002). Koekboya : Ganderkesee, Germany: REMHÖB-Verlag.
Bolton, E. M. (1972). Lichens for vegetable dyeing. London; McMinnville, OR: Studio Vista Publishers ; Robin & Russ Handweavers.
Bronson, J., & Bronson, R. (1977). Early American Weaving and Dyeing: The Domestic Manufacturer’s Assistant and Family Directory in the Arts of Weaving and Dyeing. New York: Dover Publications.
Brosi, S. (2010, August). Steps Toward Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) Restoration (Dissertation). University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. Retrieved from http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_graddiss/779
Buccigross, J. (2006). The Science of Teaching with Natural Dyes. BookSurge.
Byczynski, L. (1997). The Flower Farmer. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Pub. Co.
Callahan, G. (2010). Hand Dyeing Yarn and Fleece: Dip-Dyeing, Hand-Painting, Tie-Dyeing, and Other Creative Techniques / Polak, John. ; (Illustrator). North Adams, MA: Storey Pub.
Cannon, J., & Cannon, M. (2003). Dye Plants and Dyeing. Portland, OR: Timber Press.
Carlin, B. (2016). Banjo: An Illustrated History. Backbeat Books.
Casselman, K. D. (1994). Historical and Modern Lichen Dyes: Some Ethical Considerations. Halifax: Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History.
Casselman, K. D. (2001). Lichen Dyes and Dyeing a Critical Bibliography of the European and North American Literature in a Culturally Marginalized Field. Ottawa: Library and Archives Canada.
Casselman, K. L. (2001a). Lichen Dyes: The New Source Book. Mineola, NY: Dover.
Casselman, K. L. (2001b). Lichen dyes: the new source book. Mineola, NY: Dover.
Castino, R. A. (1974). Spinning & Dyeing the Natural Way. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Chamberlain, J. L., Bush, R. J., Hammett, A. L., & Araman, P. A. (2002). Eastern National Forests: Managing for Nontimber Products. Journal of Forestry, 100(1), 8–14.
Chenciner, R. (2000). Madder Red : Richmond, England: Curzon.
Conway, C. (1995). African Banjo Echoes in Appalachia: A Study of Folk Traditions (1st ed). Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
Crook, J. (2007). Natural Dyeing / Christy, Geraldine. New York: Lark Books.
d’Harcourt, R. (2002). Textiles of Ancient Peru and Their Techniques. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.
Dalby, G. (1985). Natural Dyes, Fast or Fugitive. Dulverton: Ashill.
Davenport, E. G. (1976). Your Yarn Dyeing: A Book for Handweavers and Spinners. Tarzana, Calif: Select Books.
Davidson, M. F. (1974). The Dye-Pot. Gatlinburg, Tenn.: Davidson.
Dean, J. (1994). The Craft of Natural Dyeing. Tunbridge Wells: Search.
Dean, J. (1999). Wild Color. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications.
Dean, J. (2009). Colours from Nature: A Dyer’s Handbook. Tunbridge Wells, Kent [England]: Search Press.
Delamare, G., & Francois, B. (2000). Colors: The Story of Dyes and Pigments. New York: H.N. Abrams.
Dronsfield, A., & Edmonds, J. (2001). The Transition from Natural to Synthetic Dyes: 1856-1920. Little Chalfont: J. Edmonds.
Dyer, A. (1976). Dyes from Natural Sources (U.S. ed). Newton, MA: C. T. Branford Co.
Eaton, A. H. (1973). Handicrafts of the Southern Highlands. New York: Dover Publications.
Emery, M. R., Ginger, C., Newman, S., & Giammusso, M. (2002). Special Forest Products in Context: Gatherers and Gathering in the Eastern United States. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service.
Epp, D. N. (1995a). The Chemistry of Natural Dyes. Middletown, OH: Terrific Science Press.
Epp, D. N. (1995b). The Chemistry of Vat Dyes. (M. Sarquis, Ed.). Middletown, OH: Terrific Science Press.
Fariello, M. A. (2009). Cherokee Basketry: From the Hands of Our Elders. Charleston, SC: History Press.
Fereday, G. (2003). Natural Dyes. London: British Museum Press.
Fettner, A. T. (1977). Potpourri. New York: Workman Publishing Company.
Flint, I. (2008). Eco Colour: Botanical Dyes for Beautiful Textiles. Millers Point, NSW: Murdoch Books.
Frey, G. E., & Chamberlain, J. L. (2016). Collection of Nontimber Forest Products from State Forests in the US South. Journal of Forestry, 114(2), 85–88. https://doi.org/10.5849/jof.15-043
Gallinger, O., & Benson, O. (1975). Weaving with Reeds and Fibers. New York: Dover Publications Inc.
Genders, R. (2001). Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale Ltd.
Gerber, F. H. (1977). Indigo and the Antiquity of Dyeing. Ormond Beach, FL: Gerber.
Gordon, F. A. (1980). Dyeing with Sticta Coronata, New Zealand’s King of the Dye Lichens (First edition). Naturally.
Green, J. R. (1975). Natural Dyes from Northwest Plants. McMinnville, Ore.: Robin and Russ Handweavers.
Greene, S. M., Hammett, A. L., & Kant, S. (2000). Non-Timber Forest Products Marketing Systems and Market Players in Southwest Viriginia: Crafts, Medicinal and Herbal, and Specialty Wood Products. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 11(3), 19–39.
Greenfield, A. B. (2005). A Perfect Red: Empire, Espionage, and the Quest for the Color of Desire. New York: HarperCollins.
Griffith, L. D. (2008). Flowers and Herbs of Early America. Singapore: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.
Hallett, J. V. (1992). Natural Plant Dyes. Kenthurst [N.S.W.]: Kangaroo Press.
Hardman, J., & Pinhey, S. (2009). Natural Dyes. Ramsbury: Crowood.
Hart, C., & Hart, D. (1978). Natural Basketry. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications.
Hill, S. H. (1997). Weaving New Worlds: Southeastern Cherokee Women and Their Basketry. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Hillier, M., & Hilton, C. (1986). The Book of Dried Flowers: A Complete Guide to Growing, Drying and Arranging. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Hughes, K. (2004). The Making of Rose Beads. In K. C. Collins & A. Cheek (Eds.) (pp. 280–285). New York: Anchor Books.
Irwin, J. R. (1982). Baskets and basket makers in southern Appalachia. Exton, PA: Schiffer Pub.
Johnson, A. (2004). Precision Wood. In K. C. Collins & A. Cheek (Eds.), Foxfire 12 (pp. 218–231). New York: Anchor Books.
Keville, K. (2009). The Little Book of Aromatherapy (2nd Revised edition). New York: Crossing Press.
Keville, K., & Green, M. (2008). Aromatherapy: A Complete Guide to the Healing Art (2nd ed.). New York: Crossing Press.
Kierstead, S. P. (1972). Natural Dyes. Boston, MA: Branden Press.
Kramer, J. (1972). Natural Dyes, Plants & Processes. New York, Scribner.
Kraska, M. E. (1995). Dried Flowers. New York: Macmillan.
Kress, S. (2006). The Audubon Society Guide to Attracting Birds (2nd ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Krochmal, A., & Krochmal, C. (1974). The Complete Illustrated Book of Dyes from Natural Sources. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
Krohn-Ching, V. (1980). Hawaii Dye Plants and Dye Recipes. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.
Kruger, S., & Chamberlain, J. ; (2015). New methods for estimating non-timber forest product output: an Appalachian case study. In Pushing boundaries: new directions in inventory techniques and applications: (pp. 330–333). Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. Retrieved from https://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/50406
Lambert, E., & Kendall, T. (2010). The Complete Guide to Natural Dyeing: Fabric, Yarn, and Fiber. Loveland, CO: Interweave Press.
Lathrop-Smit, H. (1978). Natural Dyes. Toronto: J. Lorimer.
Law, R. N., & Taylor, C. W. (1991). Appalachian white oak basketmaking: handing down the basket. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
Leechman, D. (1943). Vegetable Dyes. Toronto, Ontario: Oxford University Press.
Lesch, A. (1970). Vegetable Dyeing; 151 Color Recipes for Dyeing Yarns and Fabrics with Natural Materials. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications.
Lindsay, W. L. (1855). Experiments on the dyeing properties of lichens. Printed by Neill and Co.
Maile, A. (1969). Tie and Dye; as a Present-Day Craft. New York, Taplinger Pub. Co.
Mayolo, K. K. A. de. (1989). Peruvian Natural Dye Plants. Economic Botany, 43(2), 181–191.
Mazow, L. G. (Ed.). (2005). Picturing the Banjo (y First edition edition). University Park, Pa: Penn State University Press.
McClain, R. J., & Jones, E. T. (2005). Nontimber Forest Products Management on National Forests in the United States. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service.
McClure, S. E. (1992). A natural dyer’s guide to Rocky Mountain lichens. Aspen Angora Publications.
McGrath, J. W. (1977). Dyes from lichens & plants. Toronto; New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
McRae, B. A. (1993). Colors from Nature: Growing, Collecting, and Using Natural Dyes. Pownal, VT: Storey Communications.
Meisch, L. A. (Ed.). (1997). Traditional Textiles of the Andes: Life and Cloth in the Highlands. New York; San Francisco: Thames & Hudson.
Milner, A. (1971). Natural Wool Dyes and Recipes. Dunedin: McIndoe.
Moerman, D. E. (1998). Native American Ethnobotany. Portland, OR: Timber Press, Incorporated.
Murphy, B. (2005). The Root of Wild Madder: Chasing the History, Mystery, and Lore of the Persian Carpet. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Nakano, E., & Stephan, B., B. (1982). Japanese Stencil Dyeing: Paste-Resist Techniques. New York: Weatherhill.
Nelson, T. C., & Williamson, M. J. (1970). Decorative Plants of Appalachia: A Source of Income. Washington DC: U.S. Forest Service.
Nicholson, S. M., & Clovis, J. F. (1967). Dye Plants and Dye Methods in West Virginia. Castanea, 32(2), 111–116. https://doi.org/10.2307/4032274
Ortiz, B. R., & Parker, J. F. (1996). It Will Live Forever: Traditional Yosemite Indian Acorn Preparation (2 Revised). Heyday Books.
Palmer, J. (1980). Dyeing with Natural Dyes: Practical Instructions for the Complete Home Process. Wellingborough, Northamptonshire: Thorsons.
Petelin, C. (1988). The Creative Guide to Dried Flowers. New York: Penguin.
Platt, E., Spector. (1996). How to Profit from Flower and Herb Crafts. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books.
Porcher, F. P. (1970). Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests. New York: Arno.
Price, S., & Price, L. (2011). Aromatherapy for Health Professionals, 4e (4th ed.). Churchill Livingstone.
Reagan, J. (2003). Want Natural Colour?: A “how to” Guide for Natural Dyes on Protein Fibers, with Tips, Techniques, Mordanting and Afterbath Processes. Dahlonega, Ga.: Jeanie Reagan.
Rice, M. (2007). Mushrooms for Dyes, Paper, Pigments, Myco Stix. Forestville, Calif: Mushrooms for Color Press.
Rice, M. C., & Beebee, D. (1980). Mushrooms for Color (Subsequent edition). California Mad River: Mad River Pr Inc.
Richards, L., & Tyrl, R. J. (2005). Dyes from American Native Plants: A Practical Guide. Portland, OR: Timber Press.
Robinson, S. (1969). A History of Dyed Textiles: Dyes, Fibres, Painted Bark, Batik, Starch-Resist, Discharge, Tie-Dye, Further Sources for Research. Cambridge, Mass., M.I.T. Press.
Rogowski, G., & DeWeese, G. (1975). Making American folk art dolls. Radnor, PA: Chilton Book Co.
Roth, S. (1998). Attracting Birds to Your Backyard: 536 Ways to Turn Your Yard and Garden into a Haven for Your Favorite Birds. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press.
Rudkin, L. (2007). Natural Dyes. London: A. & C. Black.
Samuel, C., & Higgins, C. (1976). Gentle Dyes (Rev. ed). Seattle: C. Higgins.
Schultz, K. (1975). Create Your Own Natural Dyes. New York: Sterling Pub. Co.
Senisi, E. B. (2001). Berry Smudges and Leaf Prints: Finding and Making Colors from Nature. New York: Dutton Children’s Books.
Stephenson, S. H. (1977). Basketry of the Appalachian Mountains. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Sugar, M., & Myers, W. R. (2002). The Complete Natural Dyeing Guide: 89 Natural Dye Recipes for Rug Hookers and Other Fiber Artists. Lemoyne, PA: Rug Hooking.
TerBeest, C. (1988). Gifts From the Earth: A Basketmaker’s Guide to Midwest Botanicals. Baraboo, WS: Wild Willow Press.
Thomas, A. W. (1980). Colors from the Earth: The Artists’ Guide to Collecting, Preparing, and Using Them. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
Trestain, C. G. (1998). Appalachian Willow Work: Re-Establishing a Sense of Place and Developing Concepts of Sustainability (Master’s Thesis). Appalachian State University.
Van Stralen, T. (1993). Indigo, Madder & Marigold: A Portfolio of Colors from Natural Dyes. Loveland, CO: Interweave Press.
Vivian, J. (1976). Wood Heat. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press Inc.
Weaver, E. (1971). Crafts in the Southern Highlands, with Seventy-Three Photographic Illustrations. Asheville, NC: Southern Highland Handicraft Guild.
Wendorff, R. (1973). How to Make Cornhusk Dolls. New York: Arco.
Wenstob, B. M., Zarski, B., & Shawkense, R. (1978). Floracolore: Natural Dyes, Herbal and Indian Lore. [S.l.]: Woodland Graphics.
Wickens, H. (1983). Natural Dyes for Spinners & Weavers. London: Batsford.
Wigginton, E. (Ed.). (1975). Foxfire 3: Animal care, Banjos and Dulcimers, Hide Tanning, Summer and Fall Wild Plant Foods, Butter Churns, Ginseng, and Still More Affairs of Plain Living. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.
Wigginton, E. (Ed.). (1980). Toys and Games. In Foxfire 6: Shoemaking, Gourd Banjos, and Songbows, One Hundred Toys and Games, Wooden Locks, a Water-Powered Sawmill, and Other Affairs of Just Plain Living (Anchor Press ed, p. 507). Garden City, NY: Anchor Books/Doubleday.
Young-Sánchez, M., & Simpson, F. W. (Eds.). (2006). Andean Textile Traditions: Papers from the 2001 Mayer Center Symposium at the Denver Art Museum. Denver Art Museum.