August 12, 2011
Plant Talk 8
Hello Plant Enthusiasts,
Well it has been an interesting and very full summer so far. We are now approaching the mid-way point of the season known as Lammas and it is time for some reflection. Frank Cook passed away two years ago one week from now. He is the biggest inspiration for this class and website and i give thanks to him.
One of the great lessons i learned from Frank is sloooow doooown. Although, like him i struggle to put it into practice. i have often luckily learned to self-regulate enough not to get forced into slowing. However, through my multitude of travels over thousands of miles this summer i have been sitting for long distances, carrying heavy bags, sometimes asymmetrically, and camped on a lot of hard grounds (sometimes cold and wet). This leaves me with some muscle trauma in my thin bony body forcing me to slow down and limiting my mobility in certain directions. Another lesson relearned. More humbleness earned… Things seem to be getting better slowly in direct proportion to how much time i dedicate to rest and especially not driving or sitting in awkward positions with this machine i am typing this class on now.
My treatment regime you may be interested to know has included Massage, Accupuncture. Moxa (made from Artemisia vulgaris), topical applicatons including the homeopathic Traumeel and another Homeopathic mixed with menthol called. i have taken Lousewort (Pedicularis canadensis), Skullcap (Scutelaria lateriflora), Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and Black Birch (Betula lenta) tinctures as well.
The slowing down in my life overall has played out in this class too. The last couple classes have been every few weeks instead of every two. i will jump back on the class every two week train now that the arc of my busyness for the year is over. Thanks for understanding….
i will take off from last classes recent events. We finished the Firefly Ethnobotany Intensive on Friday eve and i drove up Saturday to the very sweet 25th Annual Wild Herb Weekend in Valle Crucis, NC. i was able to attend through a combination of work trade and scholarship. Funny as i had been paid to teach the previous year. i was not going to even go due to finances so i am very thankful for this offer which came the night before. Still, i think i will ask to teach next year instead. It was nice to have follow up time with Dr. Sunshine Brosi. She taught about basketry using the exotic invasive Japanese Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) and also about natural dyes using Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) and Onion skins (Allium sp.). Dr. Brosi brought up the excellent point that when harvesting invasives or simply removing or treating infestations one must not confuse look alike natives that are sometimes threatened. i also went on a mushroom walk with Alan Muskat and feel like i am finally ready to dive into the world of more inclusive mushroom identification. The last class i took was on herbs for pregnancy and post partum. Three guys one pregnant mama and a very apt teacher named Mechell Turner made for a great experience.
The Sunday eve after Wild Herb Weekend i taught a mead making class outside Boone at the farm of dear friend and local food rock star Amy Fiedler. The class was well attended and we started over 14 gallons of mead. Everyone was enthusiastic and asked great questions. i made a mead from Vanilla beans (Vanilla planifolia) given to me from my advisor Dr. Christoff den Biggelaar. The beans are from his travels in Madagascar. i also started a mead with ingredients from the most recent National Rainbow gathering including tips from most of the multitude of conifers growing on site i.e. Spruce (Picea), Fir (Abies spp.) and a bit of Osha (Ligusticum sp.).
The Permaculture Gathering in Celo is the place where i really first fell in love with Frank Cook and the plant list concept both of which i took up wholeheartedly. The inventory that Frank started working on in 2001 grew by a few plants this year still. They included the Small Green Wood Orchid (Platanthera clavellata), the deadly poisonous False Hellebore (Veratrum viride) the bog plant Pipe Wort (Eriocaulon sp.) and the relatively common Poor Person’s Pepper (Lepidium sp.). Our list for that land is now 224 species which is almost 10% of the number of native and naturalized species in the whole entire Blue Ridge region (Wofford, 1989). A total of 97 of the 144 families of vascular plants have been identified as well.
Post Permaculture gathering there is always a little lull in my event schedule. i have been giving my volunteer hours for the year to the Buncombe county Master Gardeners and trying to catch up with people while recuperating my body.
A little teaching this weekend at Soulflower farm in Leicester and Maverick Farm in Boone. and then more relaxation and preparation for the wedding of a friend. i will be helping with the flowers at the wedding so the next class will probably explore some botany around that.
This is also time to be thinking about Fall Gardening. i wonder how many of you all reading this will plant a garden this fall. What might it contain?
Exotic and Invasive Plants
This class is mainly focused on the phenomenon of exotic invasive plants. Exotic invasives are a topic that i have explored for a few years now starting with my graduate research. They are all the rage within the science of Ecology now. A recent book called 1493 (Mann, 2011) which is a sequel to 1491 (Mann, 2006) explores in part how vastly transformed the landscape of America has become due to the presence of these organisms. Not just plants, but microbes, insects, mollusks, rodents, earthworms, etc…The following is a revision and distillation from my research on the phenomenon of exotic invasives plants in particular.
What are Exotic/Alien Invasive Plants?
Many names are given for exotic invasives. These include noxious, nonindigenous, alien, and non-native weeds. Andow (2005) offers a general definition. “Invasive alien species become established in natural or semi-natural ecosystem or habitat, are agents of change and threaten native biological diversity.” Invasive plants may come from far away continents or adjoining areas within one continent. In the U.S. most exotic invasive plants come from Europe or Asia.
Invasion ecology is the study of how invasive species interact in the environment. It is concerned with five questions: Which taxa invade? How fast? What makes ecosystems invasible? What is the impact? How can we contain, control, or eradicate harmful invaders? All of these questions are related to the particular habitat in question (Radosevich, Holt, & Ghersa, 2007; Rejmanek, 2005)
Many factors relate to whether a plant will become invasive. These include the type of plant and the type of ecosystem in question. Plant characteristics include reproductive strategies, relation to biotic and abiotic forces, age to reproduction, and reproductive success. Specific reproductive strategies include seed dormancy regimes and adaptations for spread by humans and other agents of nature. Plants that have seeds that are the same size and shape of crop seeds may elude winnowing processes (Westbrooks, 1998). Plants that have flexible reproductive regimes are more likely to become invasive. Plants that have a number of pollinators, the potential for self- pollination, and other means of asexual reproduction are some examples. Plants that reproduce early in their life cycle and make copious amounts of seeds that are readily distributed are also potential invasives.
Other plant characteristics that aid in invasiveness include; long life, production of biological toxins, prickles, spines, thorns, the ability to parasitize other plants, and high photosynthetic rate. Plants that show “fitness homeostasis” or the ability to flourish in a number of environments have a larger potential to become exotic invasives (Rejmanek, 2005).
Ecosystem characteristics that affect exotic invasive potential include; species diversity, position as a disturbed or climax environment, climate regime, soil quality, availability of water, nutrient resource availability, and the type of plants already present. Characteristics of reproduction, historical exposure to selective pressure, and post-disturbance recovery rates are factors related to the resistance of plants that are already present to invasion by exotics.
Only a fraction of introduced species are actually detrimental. These are known as “transformer species”. These plants actually change the character of the ecosystem that they inhabit. There are several ways in which a species may change the ecosystem including excessive use of water, changing the nutrient regime, changing the fire regime, altering the pattern of erosion, accumulation of litter, altering carbon storage, and accumulation of salt (Cronk & Fuller, 2001; Rejmanek, 2005).
Trends in Exotic Invasive Plant Potential
Some families seem to exhibit more of a propensity toward invasiveness. These include the Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Hydrocharitaceae, Papaveraceae, Pinaceae, and Polygonaceae. Likewise, some families are underrepresented in the exotic invasive flora including Orchidaceae, Acanthaceae, Podocarpaceae, Rubiaceae, and Zamiaceae. However, even in these underrepresented families exceptions do exist (Mooney, 2005)
According to the data from www.invasives.org NC, SC, TN, GA, KY, and VA have 300 species listed at some level of invasiveness (Miller, Chambliss, & Bargeron, 2006). These plants represent 76 Families. Forty families have only one species represented, while eight families have only two species represented. Sixteen families have between three and five species represented. The remaining eleven families have 178 species represented. This represents well over half the total. The eleven top invasive families follow include the number of representative species in parentheses;
|Grass family, Poaceae (59)||Figwort family, Scrophulariaceae (8)|
|Aster family, Asteraceae (28)||Rose family, Rosaceae (8)|
|Bean family, Fabaceae (27)||Honeysuckle family, Caprifoliaceae (8)|
|Mint family, Lamiaceae (10)||Tomato family, Solanaceae (6)|
|Smartweed family, Polygonaceae (9)||Mustard family, Brassicaceae (6)|
|Bindweed family, Convolvulaceae (9).|
The top three families listed have over one third of the total number of invasive species! Fabaceae, Asteraceae, and Poaceae are three of the most diverse species rich families in the world. However, they still represent a disproportionate amount of invasives given their percentage of total world flowering plant flora. Asteraceae contains roughly 25,000 spp. Fabaceae has about 19,350 spp. and Poaceae has about 10,000 spp. out of a total of approx 270,000 spp. (Groombridge & Jenkins, 2002; Heywood, Brummitt, Culham, & Seberg, 2007). This equals roughly 20% of total world flora. The data related to plant family level invasiveness may be used in conjunction with other information to predict possible invasive tendencies. Correlating acreage affected by family and even genus may help set priorities of which invasive plants to control first. Genus diversity within prevalent exotic invasive plant families might also give clues as to the propensity of certain plants to invade.
The predominant life forms of invading plants in the Southeast are listed here with number of species following in parentheses; Forbs/Herbs (118), Grasses (61), Shrubs (39), Vines (30), Aquatic Plants (26) and Trees (19) (Miller et al., 2006). Connecting acreage affected with plant form may also help set control priorities. Unfortunately, at this time much work is left to be done in analyzing how many acres are truly affected by this diverse array of species. Some estimates have been made for individual species. For instance Kudzu (Pueraria montana) and Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) alone cover millions of acres (Westbrooks, 1998). Total coverage by exotic invasives in the U.S. in 1998 already amounted to well over 100 million acres and was estimated to be growing at a rate of 8-20% annually (U.S. Dept of Interior, 1998). The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and satellite imagery may help characterize the nature of coverage by various exotic invasive plants.
Effects of Exotic Invasive Plants
Unlike other forms of pollution that may degrade over time naturally once the source has been controlled invasive species continue to proliferate, (Weber, 2003). Exotic invasives can lower the value of land for various uses. The control of exotics and losses of production because of them cost billions of dollars each year in the U.S. alone (Burrell, 2006; Myers, 2003).
About 8,000 species or 3% of all known plants are considered to be invasive. Of these about 200-250 spp. or .1% of total are recognized as major problems in world agriculture, with about 80 taxa representing the primary and most troublesome species (Westbrooks, 1998). At least 4,500 species of foreign plants and animals have been introduced that have free-living populations in the U.S. since the time of European colonization. Of that total at least 675 cause some form of economic damage (Westbrooks, 1998). Almost 3,500 species of plants are recognized as weeds in the U.S (Weed Science Society of America, 2007). Typically about 65% of weeds come from exotic locales.
Effects on Biodiversity
Non native plants are considered to be the second biggest threat to biodiversity besides development (Westbrooks, 1998). Some exotic invasives poison other biota either through allelopathy or through their toxicity to grazing animals. Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) is one exotic invasive in Appalachia that exudes toxins from its roots that are not good for other plants. In 1998 the habitat of two-thirds of all threatened and endangered species was imperiled by invasives (U.S. Dept of Interior, 1998). Exotic invasives can exacerbate the fire regime which may change available habitat for native plants and cause threats to human settlements (Miller, 2007). Chinese Silvergrass (Miscanthus sinensis) is a plant in Appalachia that may increase fire risk. Riparian areas are also often severely affected by exotic invasives. Native herbivores don’t always feed on non-native plants as readily as food sources they are used to (Tallamy, 2009).
Open water environments are notorious for the introduction of exotic invasives (Rejmanek et al. 2005). Exotic invasives can quickly take over aquatic environments. Many plants from just a few families have quickly become noxious weeds. These families include Alismataceae, Araceae, Azollaceae, Haloragaceae, Hydrocharitaceae, Najadaceae, Pontederiaceae, Potamogetonaceae, and Sparganiaceae. Most of the genera listed for these families have Class A highest priority status in the Carolinas but do not even appear in the standard flora for this area that was written only four decades ago (Radford, Ahles, & Bell, 1968). The absence of such important invasives from a relatively recent survey of plant life shows the quick moving nature of some infestations. Elpel (2004) covers many of these exotic invasive water families listed alphabetically followed by page numbers. Alismataceae (173), Azollaceae (41), Haloragaceae (112), Najadaceae (174), and Potamogetonaceae (175).
How are Exotic Invasive Plants Introduced?
Invasion typically follows a certain order. These steps include introduction, naturalization, facilitation, spread, interaction with animals and other plants, and stabilization (Cronk & Fuller, 2001). Vectors for the introduction of exotic invasive plants include ports, botanical gardens, plant collectors, foreign produce, nurseries, research stations, factories, and travelers.
The rate of spread can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the confluence of various factors (Rejmanek, 2005). Certain vectors are more dangerous than others. This phenomenon is largely due to awareness, scale and repetition of risky behavior. It is necessary to prioritize which vectors are the biggest issues and reduce their potential (Rejmanek, Richardson and Higgins, 2005).
Globalization and the liberalization of trade have led to increased introduction of exotic invasives by accident. For instance, plants have been known to hitchhike on boats or in their ballast water and then set up residence. Domestic sources can also lead to accidental introduction of exotic invasives. For example, hay that is used for mulch may contain seeds of exotics. Hay used for forage on public lands now must often be certified weed free (United States, 1998).
Most exotic invasives have been introduced intentionally by the horticulture trade (Weber, 2003; Westbrooks, 1998). “In most countries horticultural releases are considered safe, and little is done to manage potential environmental risks of these introductions despite abundant scientific evidence that these introductions can cause environmental harm” (Andow, 2005) According to one study over half the species invading natural areas in the U.S. were introduced through trade in ornamentals (Randall & Marinelli, 1996). Wildflower seed mixtures often contain a certain percentage of weed seeds. Therefore, buyers should buy mix with a low percentage of weed seeds and control any weeds that germinate before they become a problem.
Some of the most noxious exotic invasives are still for sale and used for a number of applications. These include Chinese silvergrass (Miscanthus sinensis), Periwinkle (Vinca minor), Japanese Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), Oriental Bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), Lespedeza (Lespedeza spp.), Silverthorn (Elaeagnus pungens), and Heavenly Bamboo (Nandina domestica) (Miller et al., 2006) It is hard to understand why the sale of these plants is not outlawed. The continuing sale of known exotic invasives represents an example of externalized costs. The horticulture industry is allowed to make a profit off of something that costs tax payers subsequently millions of dollars.
Alternatives to planting exotic invasives do exist. Some varieties of Heavenly Bamboo (Nadina domestica) are sterile. Cultivars of Silver Grass (Miscanthus sp.) also vary widely in seed viability and fertility (Miller et al., 2006). The Brooklyn Botanical Garden published a book of native plants that have analogous uses to exotic invasives (Burrell, 2006). The use of native plants for landscaping will lessen the viable populations that may escape from foreign cultivars. The growth and sale of native plants presents a significant economic opportunity for local nurseries and landscapers. Many natives that are endangered can have their populations bolstered by use in the landscape. One great example is the current use of Witch Alder (Fothergilla spp.) in the landscape. This is a native plant with many positive aesthetic values that is now rather rare in the wild.
The maintenance of ecological functionality has led to the introduction of many exotic invasives. Many plants have been introduced to prevent erosion. Some examples include Kudzu (Pueraria montana), Lespedezas (Lespedeza spp.), and various members of the genus Elaeagnus. The literature is littered with plants that were introduced for their forage potential. Unfortunately, such plants have a built in dispersal mechanism by birds and other wildlife that made lead to long distance establishment away from the original planting area.
Institutional Framework for Control of Exotic Invasive Plants
All applicable stakeholders need to be involved in exotic invasive control including land managers, conservation associations, federal agencies, universities, horticulturalists, weed scientists, government officials, media, private citizens, local businesses, tourism boards, etc. The exotic invasive phenomenon is too large to be controlled by any one entity. Millions of dollars spent on remediation measures will do no good if plants continue to be dispersed through lack of awareness.
A global invasive species database and early warning system can be found at www.issg.org/database (Poorter, 2005). The best indicator of potential invasiveness of a species is its invasiveness in a similar habitat elsewhere (Poorter, et al. 2005). Databases from host countries, weed manuals, and plant floras are all useful tools.
Campaigns to inform the public about the threat from exotic invasives take on a number of forms. Federal, state and local authorities all produce a variety of materials including pamphlets, brochures, videos, interpretive exhibits, and classes. Nonetheless, much is left to be done to educate the public about the challenges faced regarding exotic invasives. The Department of Transportation in North Carolina recently published a new guide about exotic invasives that may serve as a model for other areas (Smith, 2008).
Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) is one tool under the banner of the International Plant Pest Convention (IPPC). The IPPC was signed by the United States and is administered under the Food and Agriculture Organization (Andow, 2005). The implementation of IPPC rules has led towards a presumption of safe until proved otherwise. Therefore, PRA’s must be conducted in a timely fashion to head off possible pest problems before they become an overwhelming issue.
The National Park Service of the U.S. also has a qualitative risk assessment tool. Their models use a point scale to rank a species potential for invasiveness, cost of control, and the consequences of delay. All these factors are combined to determine which organisms should be prioritized for management (Andow, 2005). National parks are constantly under threat from exotic invasives due to their large size and special habitats.
Many other entities within the U.S. government do work concerning exotic invasive plants. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is responsible for the prevention of the introduction of foreign weeds. They work to eradicate introduced pests and regulate the importation of potential invasives. The Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW) is a group of 17 organizations dedicated to determining ecologically sound ways to manage invasive plants on federal and private lands (Westbrooks, 1998).
Regional research centers can possibly offer the resource of limited introduction as an intermediate step in assessing if a problem may arise. This type of research is very time consuming and somewhat limited by definition. For instance, a species may respond differently under various conditions of soil types, nutrient regimes, and climate that are hard to replicate. Nonetheless, research is necessary to justify appropriate rules and regulations concerning exotic invasives.
Tools of Control
Prevention is the cheapest and most effective means of exotic invasive control (Westbrooks, 1998). Other types of control include mechanical, chemical, burning, and biological. (S. R. Kaufman & W. Kaufman, 2007; Miller, Manning, & Enloe, 2010).
Practitioners must first decide where to focus efforts. They need to decide whether to concentrate on outlying areas in which invasives are spreading or look to areas of particular biological interest. Economics are also a key factor in deciding control strategies. Ultimately an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy is the most effective means of controlling exotic invasive plants (Miller, 2007). IPM is a holistic approach to managing pests taking into account economic, environmental, and social implications of infestations.
Mechanical control can be a useful practice while typically being employed in partnership with responsible herbicide use (Miller, 2007). Brush cutting can allow for the treatment of plants basally and of the more susceptible tender re-growth. Use of various disking implements and rakes may only serve to propagate certain asexually reproducing species. String trimmers may be used to wound waxy leaves and provide for more effective herbicide take up. Repeated application of mechanical techniques such as brush cutting and mowing can eventually exhaust the re-growth potential of some plants such as multiflora rose (Kay, Lewis, & Langeland, 1995). Girdling and mulching are two other mechanical techniques that are effective with certain species.
Herbicides should be the last resort, but are sometimes necessary for heavy infestations of particular species. Judicious use of the least persistent, most effective, and environmentally friendly herbicides is therefore sometimes warranted (Randall & Marinelli, 1996). A number of methods are used with the application of chemical herbicides. These include foliar sprays, stem injection, cut-treat, basal sprays, and soil spots. Care must be exercised when applying herbicides. Responsible applicators uses the right chemical, in the right quantity, at the right time of year, using the right technique and following all precautions as noted on the label. Organic herbicides do exist mostly based on high concentrations of vinegar often in concert with other botanical oils.
Much research is being conducted on the use of biological controls for exotic invasives (Coombs, Clark, Piper, & Cofrancesco, 2004). Scientists will often go to the home range of an introduced plant and observe its natural predators. Caution must be used before large scale introduction of such predators. The possibility of unexpected deleterious side effects from biological predator introduction needs to be assessed first. Biological controls also need to be as target specific as possible.
Multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) presents an example of a biological control success story. One disease and two insects are now preying on multiflora rose and are expected to largely control it in the next 20 years (Amerine, 2000). It remains to be seen if these predators will move onto native roses when and if the exotic invasive one becomes eradicated. Some people also use animals such as goats to control invasives such as Kudzu, Multiflora rose, and other Brambles (Kay et al., 1995). Care must be taken, as animals can also be vectors for the spread of invasives if they consume fruits which produce viable seeds post digestion (Miller, 2007).
Many exotic invasives have uses in their places of origin. Some of these plants are used for food, medicine, and crafts. Harvesting for use may become another method of deterrent if the general public can be encouraged to take up some of these traditional practices. This phenomenon would essentially create a resource from a menace. i presented research on this idea for the 2008 Society for Economic Botany Conference held at Duke University. A recent publication by Timothy Lee Scott (2010) does an excellent job of exploring the potential of invasive plant medicine in particular. A website covers many aspects of using invasives for crafts.
My research shows that a significant amount of exotic invasives can be used for food, medicine, crafts and more. I have recorded a total of 123 species out of 300 species listed as invasive by SC, NC, KY, VA, TN, and GA to have some potential use. Fifty-six species listed as top priority by at least one of these states has a potential use. The large majority of plants with a use can be employed for food, medicines, or natural dyes (Buchanan, 1995; J. Cannon & M. Cannon, 2003; Couplan, 1998; Duke & Foster, 1999; Peterson, 1978). The exotic invasive literature rarely if ever addresses these potential uses or their possibility as a means of control which I hope to help rectify as time goes on.
Further Research with Exotic Invasives
Further research might focus on a variety of questions. What is the economic and social viability of pursuing identified uses? How effective are harvesting practices in relation to controlling target species? What other uses might be identified? What is the correlation between form of plant and area affected? What are the relations between major invasive families and genus diversity? What is the most effective means to pursue notification and conversation with various regulatory bodies to align invasive categorization and treatment prioritization? Global climate change also seems like it will contribute to the spread of exotic invasive species (Mooney, 2005).
The role of exotic invasives in Appalachia might be studied through the Appalachian Regional Commission and Appalachian Plant Materials Center. The Southeast which includes most of southern Appalachia has over 300 species considered as exotic invasives. The field of exotic invasive control needs further studies to determine the full economic impact of exotic invasives. These types of studies would help justify the expense of control efforts and the prevention of further infestations.
Lists of possible native analogues for various areas need to be further compiled. In a conversation with Dr. Sunshine Brosi she made the point that ability to distinguish between natives and exotic invasive relatives is also important. Good natured people trying to control invasives may instead remove their often rare and threated native relatives by accident. Proper identification through regional guides can be an essential part of the control process (Ball et al., 2001; Haragan, 1991; Holm, 1991; Royer & Dickinson, 1999). i am working during my “spare” time on compiling a key of natives versus exotic invasives in Appalachia to prevent confusion in harvest/control.
Nurseries can be engaged to fill the niche of native plant production. Native plant growers can also supply material for the re-vegetation of public natural areas. Hopefully, this information on exotic invasive plants has empowered you to be more aware of what you might introduce to the area where you live and who you might help control the exotics that are already running rampant across the land.
For the next class we will cover major families that promote Biodiversity, particularly beneficial insects, moths, butterflies and birds and it will be posted around August 26th
Major families to consider include. Rosaceae, Fagaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Brassicaceae and the Lauraceae.
Below are items to think about/comment on. Please write me directly at email@example.com or leave information in the commentary under this class. Save your comment before submitting if possible as sometimes our spam filter seems to reject them. The problem seems to be connected to how much time you take to submit. I WOULD REALLY LOVE TO HEAR WHAT YOU HAVE TO SAY!!!
- Do some research into invasive plant utility plants around you and share that info with some people
- Plan a fall garden or put some plants in pots
- Attend a workshop or a class and write up a brief description of plants or information learned.
- Post any clear photos of question plants to Facebook or send in an email.
Praises to all that have donated to the cause. i encourage everyone reading this to donate as they are able financially, commentarialy, or energetically... Your contributions greatly help me continue this crucial work of ethnobotanical research and education. Please let me know your thoughts in general and anyway i can help this class serve you best.
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Groombridge, B., & Jenkins, M. (2002). World Atlas of Biodiversity: Earth’s Living Resources Inthe 21st Century. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
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Mann, C. C. (2006). 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus (1st ed.). Vintage.
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Miller, J. H., Manning, S. T., & Enloe, S. F. (2010). A Management Guide for Invasive Plants in Southern Forests. Asheville, NC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station.
Miller, J. H. (2007). Nonnative Invasive Plants of Southern Forests: A Field Guide for Identification and Control. Asheville, NC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station.
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Peterson, L. (1978). A Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants of Eastern and Central North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Poorter, M. de. (2005). The ISSG Global Invasive Species Database and Other Aspects of an Early Warning System. Invasive Alien Species: A New Synthesis (pp. 59-83). London: Island Press.
Radford, A. E. B., Ahles, H., & Bell, C. R. (1968). Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Radosevich, S. R., Holt, J. S., & Ghersa, C. (2007). Ecology of Weeds and Invasive Plants: Relationship to Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience.
Randall, J. M., & Marinelli, J. (1996). Invasive Plants: Weeds of the Global Garden. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden.
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