Greetings plant enthusiasts!
Angelica (Angelica spp.), Angel Trumpet (Brugmansia spp.), Autumn Joy (Sedum sp.), Beeblossoms (Oenothera spp. syn Gaura spp.), Bindweeds (Calystegia spp.), Clovers (Trifolium spp.), Comfrey (Symphytum officinale), Crown Vetch (Securigera varia syn Coronilla v.), Dodder (Cuscuta spp.), Florida Star Anise (Illicium floridanum), Four O’Clocks (Mirabilis spp.), Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica), Everlasting Pea (Lathyrus latifolius), Evening Primrose (Oenothera spp.), Gentians (Gentiana spp.), Giant Reed (Arundo donax), Groundnut (Apios spp.), (Hibiscus spp.), Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.), Hydrangea spp., Hyssops (Agastache spp.), Indian Tobacco (Lobelia inflata), Japanese Knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum syn. Reynoutria japonica, Lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), Mallow (Malva neglecta), Mountain Mint (Pycnanthemum spp.), Morninglory (Convolvulus spp.), Motherwort (Leonurus spp.), Nasturtium (Tropaeolum spp.), Passionflower (Passiflora spp.), Phlox spp. Pigweeds (Amaranthus spp.), Sages (Salvia spp.), Shiso (Perilla frutescens), Shoo Fly Plant (Nicandra physalodes), Spider Plant (Cleome sp.), Tobacco (Nicotiana spp.), Trumpet Creeper (Campsis radicans), Turtlehead (Chelone spp.), Purple Top Vervain (Verbena bonariensis), Wild Carrot (Daucus carota), Windflower (Anemone spp.).
The Asteraceae always puts on quite the show come fall in particular! Some examples blooming in Western North Carolina currently are included below.
Bearsfoot (Smallanthus uvedalius) syn Polymnia sp.), Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum), Compass Plant (Silphium spp.), Cosmos sp., Dahlia spp., Echinacea spp., Galliant Soldier (Galinsoga spp.), Goldenrods (Euthamia spp., Solidago spp.), Indian Plantain (Arnoglossum sp.), Ironweed (Vernonia noveboracensis), Joe Pye Weed (Eutrochium spp.), Marigolds (Tagetes spp.), Mexican Sunflower (Tithonia sp.), Ragweed (Ambrosia spp.), Sochane (Rudbeckia laciniata), Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea stoebe), Sunflowers (Helianthus spp.), Thistles (Cirsium spp.), Tickseed (Coreopsis spp.), Wild Lettuce (Lactuca spp.), Wild Quinine (Parthenium integrifolium), Wingstem (Verbesina spp. syn Actinomeris), Yarrow (Achillea millifolium), and Zinnia spp.
The ferociously opportunistic plants known as Silver Grass (Miscanthus sinensis) and Stilt Grass (Microstegium vimineum) are just starting to bloom large and in charge currently from the Poaceae as are many other grasses.
Here’s a link to a photo album featuring many of the plants above.
Teaching at the Blue Ridge School of Herbal medicine, NC Arboretum, Warren Wilson College. Upcoming at John C. Campbell Folk School, LEAF festival and the WANDER school.
Plants that Support Biodiversity
This particular class is focused on biodiversity. Much information presented here comes from my graduate research like some of the other classes this year. For that reason some ideas are more germane to Appalachia than other areas. However, much is applicable to anywhere in the U.S.A. and the temperate world in general for that matter. Biodiversity is a concern across the globe! Many studies have led to a more comprehensive understanding of the challenges with maintaining biodiversity and the significant role diverse ecosystems play (Bailey, 1995; Dougherty et al., 2016; Groombridge, 1992; Groombridge & Jenkins, 2002; Howard, 2003; Khasim et al., 2020; Korner & Spehn, 2019; Laird, 2002; McManis, 2012; Nazarea, 2006; Ricketts et al., 1999).
The work of re:wild is fascinating in that it is focused on finding life forms once documented that have not been seen often for decades. Rewilding as a conceptual framework has gotten a lot of attention (Foreman, 2004; P. S. Martin & Greene, 2007; Mortali & Cope, 2019; Olson, 2012; Perino et al., 2019; Pettorelli et al., 2018, 2019; Sandom et al., 2013; Torres et al., 2018; Zefferman et al., 2018). Though the rewilding movement in general is controversial to some when applied to the idea of walling off nature and thinking of humans as intrinsically damaging to their surrounding environs (Jørgensen, 2015; Prior & Ward, 2016).
Appalachia is an area of international significance in regards to biodiversity clearly from such studies mentioned above. Studies local to the area also support such a claim (Albrecht, 2006; Belote et al., 2011; Boone & Aplet, 1994; Brown & Peet, 2003; Bulluck, 2003; Burch, 2009; R. I. Miller, 1986; Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Cooperative & USDA, 1996; USDA, 1996; Veteto, 2005).
A number of studies has been constructed about the rare plant communities of southern Appalachia (Godt et al., 1996; Murdock, 1995; Sorrie B. A, 2004; Vandervort-Sneed, 2008; Wiser et al., 1998).
Some rock star plants that far and away support the largest amount of wildlife follow (A. C. Martin et al., 1961):
Marsh and Aquatic: Bulrush, Pondweed, Smartweed, Widgeongrass
Upland Herbaceous: Bristlegrass, Ragweed, Pigweed, Panicgrass
Woody Plants: Blackberry, Dogwood, Oak, Pine, Wild Cherry
The Sustainable Sites initiative offers a certification program for landscaping that is supportive of biodiversity and regenerative.
We considered two types of agrobiodiversity in a former class this year about temperate cultivated foods. http://www.botanyeveryday.com/online-classes/2022-plant-talk-7-cultivated-temperate-food-plants
The first type concerns the number of species that are used in an agricultural system. The second type involves the number of varieties of any given species that are grown. Grower/consumer education and awareness is essential in order to promote either type of agrobiodiversity. Communication of tantalizing preparation possibilities is just as importance as knowledge of cultivation and acquisition. Agrobiodiveristy is becoming increasingly important in the context of the overall sustainability of the place of our species on the planet (Fernandaz, 2014; Giuliani, 2007; Hunter et al., 2020; Kontoleon et al., 2008; Santilli, 2011; Soam, 2015; Steier & Cianci, 2019; Zimmerer & Haan, 2019). Here is a short Atlas Obscura article focused on Apple diversity.
Biodiversity in the Garden World of Insects
Most vegetable and flower gardens are designed to provide food and/or aesthetic beauty. A well designed garden can provide both. Some gardeners think to provide for insects such as butterflies, moths and bees. Fewer gardeners still, probably think to plant for the vast array of beneficial insects that may deter and/or control the pests of their crops. One such term for such a planting scheme is Farmscaping (Dufour, 2000; Pisani Gareau, 2008). Every landholder needs to take personal responsibility in supporting biodiversity to whatever degree possible. i have especially appreciated presentations by the Xerces Society who are an excellent resource for maintaining the diversity of insect like pollinators www.xerces.org. They have valuable publications as well (Shepherd et al., 2003; Society, 1998, 2016; Vaughn et al., 2015). Many other books about pollinators are available of course as too (Eierman, 2020; Holm, 2014; Patiny, 2012; Proctor et al., 2003; Waser & Ollerton, 2006; Willmer, 2011).
Butterflies and Moths
Butterflies are desired by some and despised by others. How many people make the connection that beautiful butterflies come from caterpillars that are sometimes pests of ornamentals and crops? Butterfly caterpillars and butterfly adults often use different plants for support (Allen et al., 2005; Cranshaw, 2004; Minno et al., 2005; Wagner, 2005). The Sunflower (Asteraceae) family is by far the most diverse host for adults in the colder areas of the world in particular. Caterpillars use a wide diversity of plants as hosts including a large number of trees.
Butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa) and other species of this genus are aptly named and very popular with butterfly adults and some caterpillars. Many people are familiar with dire reports of the current state of Monarch Butterflies who depend on Asclepias spp. and migrate to California/Mexico every year. Their populations have been decimated in recent years. Less folks are aware of the threat to Monarch habitat in Mexico related to the booming Avocado industry! Monarchs rightly have a literature all their own (Agrawal, 2017; Frost, 2008; Marsh, 2010; Pasternak, 2012; Solensky & S.Oberhauser, 2004; Turley, 2010).
A number of books specific for studying butterflies have been published over the years as well (Brock & Kaufman, 2006; Cech & Tudor, 2005; Daniels, 2004; Feltwell, 1993; Mikula, 2001; Opler, 1998; Sbordoni & Forestiero, 1998; Stokes et al., 1991).
Moths affect a variety of field crops and trees and can even eat through linens and grains in the household. However, a relatively few moth species are pests (Marinelli, 2008). According to Nancy Adamson from Xerces over 4,000 spp. occur in North America alone. The biggest moth pests of crops affect members of the Brassicaceae and Rosaceae families. European and Asian Gypsy moths are currently decimating oak trees in the northeast and quickly moving south (USDA, 1996). However, some moths also are known for their exceeding beauty. My friend Dana Nagle had quite an adventure with a Luna Moth a few winters ago for instance. Adult moths typically are night feeders that are drawn to fragrant white colored flowers. Moth caterpillars are specialized in their dependence on a host of specific trees and other plants like butterflies (Marinelli, 2008). A detailed account of the role moths and butterflies play in the environment has been published (Tallamy, 2009). Moth guides are not as prolific as Butterfly ones (Beadle & Leckie, 2012; Covell & Peterson, 1984; Holland, 1968). A number of resources also combine the Butterflies and Moths together (Carter, 2002; Carter & Hargreaves, 1987; Eid & Viard, 1997; Mitchell & Zim, 2001; Morgan, 2013).
The European Honey Bee (Apis melifera) is attracted to a wide variety of plants. This insect is not native to the Americas and it is very challenged currently due to a number of insect pests, diseases and pesticides like neonicitinoids. They and other pollinators are in dire need of our support! Four main periods of blooming plant cohorts occur in western North Carolina. The first period includes the Willows (Salix spp.) and Maples (Acer spp.). The second period includes Tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) and various members of the Rose family (Rosaceae). The third flow makes for a special cherished honey from the Sourwood tree (Oxydendrum arboreum) which can sometimes mix with the less desirable in the market Sumac (Rhus spp.). The last flow is from various members of the Sunflower family (Asteraceae). Typically the first and last flows are left for the bees while beekeepers remove the “extra” honey from the second and third flows. Members of the Mint family (Lamiaceae) when planted or naturally occurring are also favorites of bees. Field crops including Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and Clover (Trifolium spp.) tend to be popular as well. Basswood (Tilia spp.) may provide another source of specialized honey when abundant and is popular in Europe too. Definitive texts may be consulted for more in depth understanding of the variety of plants used by bees around the USA (Garvin, 2016; H. B. Lovell, 1977; J. H. Lovell, 1999; Pellett, 1977). Every area will have a similar cycle of blooming cohorts often from the same families mentioned above. A specific resource for identifying bumble bees also exists (Williams et al., 2014).
Many other fascinating books have been written about the amazing life and social organization of bees and how to keep them (Bonney, 1991; Conrad & Nabhan, 2013; Delaplane, 2007; Fisher, 2010; Flottum, 2014; Hoopingarner, 2006; T. Horn, 2006; Jones, 2011; Nordhaus, 2011; Packer, 2014; Ransome, 2004; Sammataro et al., 2011; Winston, 1991).
North America alone has thousands of native bee species. More commonly known ones including the Orchard Mason and Solitary types among so many others (Carril & Wilson, 2021; Danforth, 2019; Griffin, 1999; Holm, 2017; Hunter & Lightner, 2016; Wilson & Carril, 2015; Wright, 2010).
Rudolph Steiner the father of biodynamics has a unique take on bees as well (Steiner, 1998). Many folks who follow Steiner’s principles related to Agriculture known as Biodynamics also subscribe to an alternative method of keeping bees known as a top bar hive (Chandler, 2013, 2015; Crowder & Harrell, 2012; Hemenway, 2013, 2017; Pisano, 2013).
A definite pattern may be observed in plants families that are considered good for beneficial insects. These families include various members of the Sunflower (Asteraceae), Mustard (Brassicaceae), Mint (Lamiaceae), Buckwheat (Polygonaceae) and Bean (Fabaceae) families. Some outlier plants include Autumn Joy (Crassula sp.) Tulip Tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) and Borage (Borago officinalis) (Ellis & Bradley, 1996; McDonald, n.d.). Many plants in these families have small flowers that are easy for beneficial insects to access. The presence of extra floral nectaries also aids in use by beneficial insects. However, research done in the Piedmont of North Carolina through NC State showed that the attraction and employment of beneficial insects may be complex, hard to characterize, and analyze (Forehand, 2004). That said the employment of beneficials certainly provides various ecosystem services in contrast to pesticides and their deleterious side effects (Cranshaw & Shetlar, 2017; Czolba & Frey, 2017; Walliser, 2013).
Trap cropping is another technique sometimes used by growers to fend off pests (Shelton & Badenes-Perez, 2006). This concept has to do with using a plant that pests prefer to distract them from the crops that farmers are trying to grow. Once insects congregate on trap crops hand picking or other types of control are easier. Plants that have purported use in such a way include Dill (Anethum graveolens), Zinnias (Zinnia spp.), Marigolds (Tagetes spp.), Eggplant (Solanum melongena), Mustard (Brassica nigra), Nasturtiums (Tropaeolum spp.), Sorghum bicolor and Sunflowers (Helianthus spp.) (Blaauw et al., 2017; Mathews et al., 2017; Yepsen, 1976). i have personally observed the preference of Japanese beetles for Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis) and types of Knotweed (Polygonum spp.) versus other typical fare. Dissenters, however, state that trap crops might simply act to bring in more pests to the general area as is also possibly the case with pheromone lures. As an aside, many species of Evening Primrose have now been moved to the genera Calylophus and Camissonia according to the USDA.
A trend may also be observed in plant families that are claimed to repel pest insects. Some overlap can be seen between these plants and plants that encourage beneficial insects. The Onion family (Alliaceae) is the chief repellant to pests and the use of Garlic (Allium sativum) sprays as a pest deterrent is well known. Other families that are often used to deter pests include the Sunflower (Asteraceae), Mint (Lamiaceae), and Mustard (Brassicaceae) (R. B. J. Yepsen, 1976). Hot peppers (Capsicum spp.) are used as deterrents sometimes as well. Often these plants are installed as “companions” along with more intentional crops.
The next level of protection would seem to include grinding up various species and spraying them on the crops for more inclusive coverage. Such a technique has been alluded to before through the practice of biodynamics and other sources (Dennis & Miller, 1997; Joffe et al., 2014; Klocek, 2013; Koepf, 2012; Lovel, 2000; Lovel & Schwartz, 2014; P. Masson, 2014; Morrow, 2014; Osthaus & Jarman, 2010; Pfeiffer, 2011; Philbrick & Philbrick, 1974; Storl & Berger, 2013; Thun, 1999, 2020; Yepsen, 1976).
Biodynamic cultivation of wine has its own specific literature (Karlsson, 2014; Legeron, 2020; Waldin, 2016).
Some plants can also be employed to kill insects outright. Typically most “organic” insecticides have come from tropical areas. Some examples include Rotenone, Sabadilla, Ryania and Pyrethrum. Native and naturalized plants that are listed for such a use include American Plum (Prunus americana), Hops (Humulus lupulus), Indian hemp (Apocynum cannabinum), Chinese Wisteria (Wisteria sinensis), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), Pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp.), False Indigo (Amorpha fruticosa), Larkspur (Delphinium sp.), Pawpaw (Asimina triloba), Peach (Prunus persica), Chamomile (Matricaria spp.) and Calamus (Acorus calamus) (Jacobsen, 1958). A type of rotenone has also been produced from a native Appalachian plant called the Hoary pea (Tephrosia virginiana) (D. Horn et al., 2005). Research from China may offer insights. Different species of many genera that occur in Appalachia and a number of exotic invasives from Asia have been tested for pest control properties (Yang & Tang, 1988). Caution is certainly appropriate in regards to the use of pesticides. Often the effects can be wide spread and long lasting. Some of the benefits of accepted organic insecticides are that they tend to be more focused on particular pests and do not persist in the environment. However, even some organic insecticides are broad spectrum and affect a wide array of organisms. My thinking is that further experimentation with local sources of insecticides that can be applied judiciously when appropriate might decrease dependence on tropical products and synthetic alternatives. The biggest thing is to spray in the evening or ideally before and after bloom to avoid affecting bees and other pollinators adversely when using anything broad spectrum. i recently heard that a spray called Serenade which is an organic spray used to ward off fungal and bacterial disease may also deleteriously affect bees as well.
Plant Biodiversity for Birds
My research to date has mainly been focused with the interface between people, plants, mushrooms and microbes. However, many people enjoy observing birds. Many bird species are also suffering from declining populations (Boone & Aplet, 1994; Marinelli, 2008). Some birds may in addition help with control of pests in the garden. Therefore, a treatment of major plants for encouraging the success of bird life is in order.
Three forms of plants are useful for bird feeding. A person can provide food for birds by growing plants that they prefer. Food can also alternatively or in addition be provided through a variety of manufactured feeders. Finally, some birds will feast on pests that afflict crops plants. Certain plants can also be used to provide habitat as well.
Many types of fruiting plants may encourage the presence of birds. Of course, this might not always be a good thing. Netting may be in order if you are trying to grow fruit for yourself. The holy grail of bringing in birds that will only eat insects and other pests while deterring birds that eat fruits seems like a mythic objective. However, an extensive list of beneficial birds has been compiled complete with habitat requirements (Jacke & Toensmeier, 2005). Some of the birds that damage crops the most follow (Martin, Zim, & Nelson, 1961).
Farm Crops/Grains: Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), Meadowlark (Sturnella magna), Redwing (Agelaius phoeniceus), Ringneck Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)
Gardens: Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris) and Golden Crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia coronata)
Orchards: Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata), Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum), Finches (Carpodacus spp.), Robin (Turdus migratorius), Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) and Waxwings (Bombycilla spp.)
Fruits that are not consumed by humans may also be supplied as a potential distraction. Some examples of these include Hollies (Ilex spp.), Magnolia (Magnolia spp.), Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and some types of Dogwoods (Cornus spp.) A number of these plants are actually toxic to humans which should be taken into account in the case of children being nearby.
Parts of Appalachia are within the Atlantic flyway that many migrating birds use when going south for the winter (Marinelli, 2008). Magnolia (Magnolia spp.) and Dogwoods (Cornus spp.) along with Spicebush (Lindera benzoin) and Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) are favorite plants of winter migrating birds (Marinelli, 2008). The ideal bird sanctuary would provide multiple types of food throughout the year (Adams, 2013; Kress, 1998, 2006). Some birds also feed on tree buds as well as seeds and fleshy fruits (Roth, 1998).
Prime plants that are recommended for feeders include Sunflower (Helianthus spp.), Millet (Panicum sp.) and the exotic Niger. The height placement of feeder and the size of feeding holes are important in encouraging certain species.
Hummingbirds are often popular with gardeners. These birds are endemic to the Americas (Roth, 1998). Many people buy plastic red feeders and fill them with sugar water to attract these creatures. Red flowers can do the same thing in a more natural way. Some examples include Bee Balm (Monarda spp.), Cardinal Flower (Lobelia cardinalis), Coral Honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens), eastern Columbine (Aquilegia canadensis), Red Buckeye (Aesculus pavia) and Trumpet Creeper (Campsis radicans). In the eastern U.S. we are graced by only one species, the Ruby throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Several more species of Hummingbirds live out in the western U.S and an order of magnitude more down into Latin America.
Habitat can be created in many ways. Bird houses may be constructed from various types of wood. A novel birdhouse that has history in the south is the use of Bottle Gourds (Lagenaria siceraria) to support a community of Purple Martins (Progne subis). Chocktaws, Chickasaws and other Native American tribes encouraged purple martins to nest because these territorial animals would protect livestock from hawks and other predator birds (Roth, 1998; Wolinski, 1994). Swallows, Chickadees and Wrens also appreciate gourd houses (Roth, 1998).
A few dead trees known as snags may be left to provide a natural source of housing for various bird species. Also, some birds depend on shrubs and thickets for protection. Evergreen plants that produce attractive fall foods such as Hollies (Ilex spp.) and members of the Pine (Pinaceae) and Juniper (Cupressaceae) families can perform two functions at once.
Many birds may help control pests in the garden. Some examples include Flycatchers (Myriarchus crinitus.), Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), Flickers (Colaptes spp.), Kingbirds (Tyrannus spp.) and Warblers (Dendroica spp.). Birds have co-evolved with plants over millions of years. Lots of fruits are just the right size and ready at just the right time for consumption and seed distribution by certain birds. Around 300 trees, shrubs and vines in North America depend on birds for seed distribution (Marinelli, 2008). Use of native plants versus exotics is important so that birds don’t help spread problem species around. Some good native grasses for birds include Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), Common Cattail (Typha latifolia), Deer Tongue Grass (Dichanthelium clandestinum, syn Panicum clandestinum), Indian Grass (Sorghastrum nutans), Indian Rice (Orysopsis hymenoides), Little Bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), Purple Top (Tridens flavus) and Switch Grass (Panicum virgatum) (Roth, 1998).
Plant diversity for other animals
Other animals than the ones mentioned already are of less interest to my current research. However, a brief treatment seems appropriate. Many studies have been published from the Center for Appalachian Farming Systems in regards to forage in particular https://www.ars.usda.gov/ARSUserFiles/19320000/AFSRCPubs238.pdf.
Below are some of the main plants studied by the center including grain crops.
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)
Lowland rice/ Upland rice
Barley (Hordeum sp.)
Orchard Grass (Dactylis glomerata)
Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon)
Red Clover (Trifolium pratense)
Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
Chickory (Cichorium intybus)
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)
Corn (Zea mays)
Tall Fescue (Schedonorus phoenix syn Festuca arundinacea)
Flatpea (Lathyrus sylvestris)
White Clover (Trifolium repens)
Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis)
Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
The families of Grass, (Poaceae) and Legumes, (Fabaceae) take up a remarkable amount of space for research that spans from 1965 to 2011. These two families comprise the vast majority of plants used for livestock forage. Additional forages include members of the Amaranth (Amaranthaceae including Chenopodiaceae), Mustard (Brassicaceae), Spinach (Chenopodiaceae), Rose (Rosaceae) and Oak (Fagaceae) families. Various brambles such a Multiflora Rose (Rosa multiflora), and other briars in Appalachian areas may be foraged on and thereby controlled by goats (Belesky et al., 2007). A few other good guides for forages are also available (Ball & Hoveland, 2015; Barnes, 2003, 2007; Buergler et al., 2005; Gabriel & Toensmeier, 2018; Karlen et al., 2003).
Other wildlife may be encouraged by the presence of certain plants. These animals may be seen as a boon to some and pests to others. Deer, for example, represent a source of high quality meat but also may decimate crops and native wildflowers. Other references may aid in further exploration of the role plants play in supporting deer and various other mammals, reptiles, etc. (A. C. Martin et al., 1961; J. H. Miller & Miller, 2005). The reference by Martin et al. (1961) uses a novel ranking system by which over 250 plants to the genus level are listed for their prevalence in the diet of hundreds of animals referenced from hundreds of thousands of analyses. The country is broken into five regions and most of Appalachia falls into the Northeast including parts of Georgia and Alabama. Oak (Quercus spp.), Pine (Pinus spp.), Cherry (Prunus spp.), Blackberry (Rubus spp.), Dogwood (Cornus spp.), Grape (Vitis spp.) and Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) make up some of the most important food sources for both the southeast and northeast regions (Martin et al., 1961). A more modern resource may also be consulted for understanding how to encourage a wider range of beneficial organisms (Jacke & Toensmeier, 2005).
The Role of Environmental Education in Promoting Biodiversity
The more we understand the diversity of nature the more we will be able to value and appreciate it (Harper-Lore & Wilson, 2000). Another powerful way to frame this is a quote from Senagalese forestry engineer Baba Dioum “In the end we will conserve only what we love, we will love only what we understand, and we will understand only what we are taught."
Luckily an inherent affinity for nature may be fundamental to all people at a base level. Significant research on various population demographics has offered insight into how people connect with and value nature (Kahn Jr, 2001). Many people in the urbanized world have become divorced from their dependence on nature in the last 50 to 150 years. Such ignorance allows for the death and destruction of the natural ecosystems that we see today. Over harvesting or illegal harvesting of plants by folks looking to make a profit off a common good is a threat as can be seen in this LA Times article.
All age demographics need to become educated about the role of nature in our lives. However, school age people are more primed for such an experience and possibly more receptive as well. Starting with children in particular has much appeal. i recently attended a presentation by the organization Muddy Sneakers which offers up a neat model www.muddysneakers.org.
Joseph Cornell (1998, 1999) is one of the foremost environmental educators for children in the world. He has written books that have inspired many. He has four basic principles: awaken enthusiasm, focus attention, direct experience, and share inspiration. Many activities have been designed to get children to have a sense of wonder that will allow for transformation (Lachecki et al., 2002; Noy, 2008; Sampson, 2015; Walmsley, 2020; Westall & Walmsley, 2018). A book has also been published that has specific activities related to Smoky Mountains National Park (Voorhis & Saville, 1993).
People in urban environments also have a role to play in aiding biodiversity. Flowers and vegetables can be grown in containers adding aesthetic beauty and functionality all in one. Much prime habitat has been lost through the process of population growth. Urban dwellers with small yards can provide much needed way posts for wildlife and quite a literature has cropped up in this regard as well as initiatives at the city wide scale (Carreiro et al., 2010; Desimini, 2019; Dwyer et al., 2000; Fox, 2011; Gilman, 1997; Gregory McPherson, 1992; Hardy, 2015; Hightshoe, 1988; Jonnes, 2016; Kellogg & Pettigrew, 2008; E. G. McPherson et al., 1997; G. McPherson et al., 2005; G. E. McPherson et al., 1994; R. W. Miller, 1996; Mougeot, 2005; Nowak & Crane, 2000; Schwab, 2009; Spirn, 2003; Tallamy, 2009, 2020; Tallamy et al., 2011; Tredici & Pickett, 2010; Youth et al., 2014; Zefferman et al., 2018).
Plant biodiversity depends upon a number of non-plant biota. i have presented in this class how the interface between plants and people as well as birds and other organisms affect overall biodiversity. The complexity of interactions illustrated serves to round out the role that plants play in the environment.
Plant poisons also can deleteriously affect biodiversity of various creatures. Often plant poisons affect human children and pets by accident (Alber & Alber, 1993; O’Kane, 2011; Weathers & Cheeke, 1998). Such occurrences may be avoided with proper awareness. Increased knowledge of the natural world will not only lead to greater safety but often enhanced appreciation as well. Other plant poisons may be employed judiciously to protect crops from unwanted predation. However, such actions are not to be taken lightly as they may have far reaching effects beyond the target organism. More about poisonous plants can be seen in another talk from this online class series. http://www.botanyeveryday.com/online-classes/2020-plant-talk-8-poisonous-plants.
Future sustainability definitely depends on our ability to support biodiversity…
For the next class we will cover major Plants, Fermentation and Fungi and it will be posted around October 21st
Below are items to think about/comment on. Please write me directly at email@example.com or leave information in the commentary under this class. WOULD REALLY LOVE TO HEAR WHAT YOU HAVE TO SAY!!!
- Make a list of the plants around you that support wildlife and share that info
with some people. Use this knowledge to personally support wildlife in a
habitat near you!
- Look up some of the families mentioned in this post in Botany in a Day and
share some information about them with the group. Or provide info from your personal experience
- Attend a workshop or a class and write up a brief description of plants or
- Post any clear photos of question plants to Facebook or send in an email.
Praises to all that have donated to the cause!!! i encourage everyone reading this to donate as they are able financially, commentarialy or energetically... Your contributions greatly help me continue this crucial work of ethnobotanical research and education. Please let me know your thoughts in general and any way i can help this class serve you best.
Literature Cited/Suggested Reading
Adams, G. M. (2013). Gardening for the birds: How to create a bird-friendly backyard. Timber Press.
Agrawal, A. (2017). Monarchs and Milkweed: A Migrating Butterfly, a Poisonous Plant, and Their Remarkable Story of Coevolution. Princeton University Press.
Alber, J. I., & Alber, D. M. (1993). Baby-Safe Houseplants & Cut Flowers: A Guide to Keeping Children and Plants Safely Under the Same Roof. Storey Books.
Albrecht, M. A. (2006). Reproductive Biology of Medicinal Woodland Herbs Indigenous to the Appalachians [Ohio University]. https://etd.ohiolink.edu/pg_10?0::NO:10:P10_ACCESSION_NUM:ohiou1163427974
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