Plant Talk 9
Temperate Medicinal Plant Study Review through the Appalachian Lens
Hello plant enthusiasts! Greetings from Western North Carolina…
The crazy times continue to unfold, unravel, inflame, resolve, shift and change. What a time that is strange… Still trying to wrap my mind around the complexity of our current reality. Grateful for the focus of the lens of botany
In the spirit of intersectionality i would like to highlight that Black Botanists week has just closed. Please check out the hashtag #blackbotanistsweek and the affiliated website. Here’s a short story by WNYC. Here’s another fascinating story from the New York Botanical Garden around the contribution of the enslaved 12 year old Edmund Albius in the production of Vanilla through hand pollination. Healing the many racial divides within our communities, countries and around the world is incumbent upon us now in a special way. Celebrating the contributions of folks from often marginalized communities is one method to have more equity have its say.
What follows is a botanically based phenological report from the area around Asheville, NC.
Avens (Geum spp.), Batchelor’s Buttons (Centaurea cynaus), Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), Butterfly Bush (Buddleja sp.), Calla Lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), Canna Lily (Canna spp.), Coreopsis spp., Dahlia spp., Crown Vetch (Securigera varia), Dayflower (Commelina spp.), Daylily (Hemerocallis fulva), Enchanter's Nightshade (Circaea spp.), Evening Primrose (Oenothera spp.), Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), Gladiolus spp., Hollyhock (Alcea rosea), Hydrangea spp. Knotweeds (Polygonum spp.), Lucifer’s Tongue (Crocosmia x crosmiiflora), Marigold (Tagetes spp.), Magnolia grandiflora, Motherwort (Leonurus spp.), Nasturtiums (Tropaeolum spp.), Passionflower (Passiflora spp.), Rose (Rosa spp.), Rose Campion (Lychnis coronaria), Rose of Sharon (Hibiscus syriacus), Sages (Salvia spp.), St John's Wort (Hypericum spp.), Tulsi (Ocimum spp.), Loosestrifes (Lysimachia spp.), Vervains (Verbena spp.), Wild Carrot (Daucus carota), Woundwort (Stachys spp.), Yarrow (Achillea millefolium).
Ready for Harvest
Garden vegetables: Cucurbitaceae including Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus), Squash (Cucurbita spp.), Solanaceae including Peppers (Capsicum spp.), Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicon). Self-seeded Holy Basil and Dill thinnings have made for some tasty flavorings.
Wild edible greens include in particular so much Lambsquarters (Chenopodium spp.) and Pigweed (Amaranthus spp.)! Also, Quickweed (Galinsoga spp.) is very prolific at this time of year. Lots of cultivated greens from the Amaranthaceae and the Brassicaceae as well.
Western Medicinal Plants
What follows is a very brief treatment of prominent western North American medicinal plants and book resources. i hope to turn this into its own class at some point and certainly welcome input.
Alder (Alnus spp.) Betulaceae
Bearberry/Manzanita (Arctostaphylos spp.)
Devil’s Club (Oplopanax horridus) Araliaceae
Desert Sage (Artemisia spp.) Asteraceae
Elderberry (Sambucus cerulea)
Incense Cedar (Calocedrus decurrens)
Pasque Flower (Anemone spp.) LOW DOSE!
Louseworts (Pedicularis spp.) Many species some more rare than others!
Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon spp.) Boraginaceae formerly (Hydrophyllaceae)
Yerba Mansa (Anemopsis californica) Saururaceae
Several resources have been helpful in my study of the medicinal aspects of western plants in particular (B. G. Baldwin et al., 2012; Carter, 2009; Chapter, 2007; Curtin, 2003; Foster & Hobbs, 2002; Garcia & Adams, 2012; Hickman, 1993; Kirk, 1975; Kozloff, 2005; Minnis, 2010; Petrides, 1998; Tilford, 1997; Vizgirdas & Rey-Vizgirdas, 2005; Wetherwax, 2002).
Kathy Keville is a prolific author and one of my favorite herbalists who resides in California (Hobbs & Keville, 2007; Keville, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2009; Keville & Green, 2008).
Michael Moore ran the Southwest School of Botanical Medicine for years www.swsbm.com. This is a great website linked above with tons of info including whole old school publications. He also published several books along the way of educating many current instructors within Appalachia and other regions as well (Moore, 1989, 1990, 1993, 2003).
i have only begun to delve into the prolific Indigenous North American ethnobotanical literature as seen in some of the sources above. A suggested reading list for mostly eastern tribes is located under the resources section of the Botany Every Day website.
Sources cited here may act as an addendum to that list from a western (mostly Californian) perspective (K. Anderson & Blackburn, 1993; M. K. Anderson, 2006; Barrett & Gifford, 2011; Bean, 1974; Bean & Saubel, 1972; Beck & Strike, 1994; P. Campbell, 2000; Castetter, 1935; Chestnut, 1974; Dean et al., 2005; Deur & Turner, 2006; Dubin & Tolley, 2008; Frank, 1991; Funk & Kaufman, 2011; Heizer & Elasser, 1980; Jacknis, 2006; Lightfoot & Parrish, 2009; Margolin, 2001; Minnis, 2010; Ortiz & Parker, 1996; Thompson, 1976; Timbrook, 2007; Welch, 2013).
Dr. Nancy Turner is an incredibly renowned researcher of First Nations ethnobiology in the Pacific Northwest as can be seen cited here (Deur & Turner, 2006; Joseph et al., 2012; J. S. Turner, 1970; N. Turner, 1996; N. Turner & Hebda, 2012; Nancy J. Turner & Kuhnlein, 1991; Nancy J Turner, 1983; Nancy J. Turner, 2010a, 2010b, 2010c; Nancy J Turner, 2014; Nancy J Turner et al., 1982, 2004; Nancy J. Turner et al., 2011, 2013; Nancy J Turner & Aderkas, 2009; Nancy Jean Turner, 1973).
Medicinal Plant Use in Appalachia
What follows is mostly another revised subset of the research i pursued on Appalachian plants while in graduate school. Much of the information has credence for other areas of the temperate world as well.
The current Pandemic crisis due to Covid-19 is certainly having a profound impact on Appalachia as it is the world over. A good one stop shop for a hub of sources with information related to herbalism and this novel corona virus issue can be found at the American Herbalists Guild.
Literally hundreds of hours of determined work and thousands of dollars of educational investment are represented here. i continue to just get by economically and the debt from my student loans and educational travels still looms large let alone the current pandemic and requisite loss of work at in person events. i will greatly appreciate any compensation for my efforts if you find this information or that of any other classes here of value.
The purpose of this class is to review the literature about medicinal plant use in Southern Appalachia, to some degree other mostly temperate areas, and set that use within a cultural context. The purpose is not to explain in any great detail what plants were used historically or are in use today. A plethora of well researched and cited references explore in depth what plants have been used, in what manner and for what ailment. However, some noteworthy plants and plant families are mentioned here.
The relative prevalence of medicinal plant use in Appalachia amongst Indigenous groups and settlers is a main focus. i also cross compare how medicinal plants have been employed in various different states within the region according to several ethnographic studies. The state of current affairs in regards to medicinal plant use, production and research is covered as well. A good bibliography will aid any prospective researcher in further exploration of older resources (De Laszlo, 1958) A suggested reading list on medicinal plants can serve this function as well in regards to more recent publications and is under the resources section of this website.
The practice of medicinal plant use is often collectively referred to as herbalism. Herbalism in Appalachia can be roughly broken into two groups and phases. The vestiges of historical use may still remain with a mostly older generation whilst their children have tended to forget such things. Meanwhile, many new comers to the area are feeding into a thriving desire to learn the lore of herb use. Often what is taught includes knowledge of other herbal traditions from different parts of the world i.e. (Ayurveda, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and European) exemplified by the approach of Michael Tierra (1988) and Frank Cook (2009).
The history of herbal study is a fascinating and extensive one (Arber, 1970; Crellin & Philpott, 1997a). Much has been written about ancient traditions of herbalism. The names of Hippocrates, Pliny, Dioscorides, Galen, Avicenna, Maimonides, Theophrastus, Gerard, Culpepper, and many others allude to knowledge handed down over thousands of years in Europe and the Middle East (Ody, 1993; Wheelwright, 1974). Similar traditions have existed all over the world. Much more can be written about the various ways that cultural bodies of medicinal knowledge have been transferred, combined, and evolved into the modern system known today. A synthesizing of knowledge is occurring that leads one to think that an amalgamated health care system may emerge at some point through globalization (Cook, 2009).
Medicinal plant study was for centuries transferred through first the oral tradition and then a compilation of books. Eventually the categorizing of herbal use evolved into extensive materia medicas, herbals and ultimately pharmacopeias. In the early 1900s the USDA issued a number of bulletins listing harvesting practices and prices for plants still in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia (USP) or those that were actively collected (Henkel, 2009). New herbals were issued in the 1900s after a significant break in time (Grieve, 1971; Muenscher & Conrad, 1978). Meanwhile, plants continued to take up less and less space in official pharmacopeias. The Thomsonians and Eclectics were strong advocates for botanical medicine in the mid-1800s. but were eventually undermined in the early 1900s (Flannery et al., 2001; Haller, Jr., 2001; Thomson, 1841). These two groups were concentrated on the edge of Appalachia in Ohio. The Lloyd library stands as an archive and testament to this era and offers an extensive list of publications (Hartwell, 1984; C. G. J. U. ; Lloyd, 1930; J. U. Lloyd, 1911). The use of patent medicines was a concurrent theme of the 1800s whereupon specific formulations became household names under various labels. Often these medicines contained potent and potentially addictive substances such as Opium (Papaver somniferum) (Orr, 2014; Wood, 1997, 2000).
Many of the best botanists of the 1800s such as Rafinesque, Asa Gray and Benjamin Barton were also medical doctors. Eventually the fields of botany and medicine diverged and many traditional herbal therapies were officially discounted by allopathic medicine in the pursuit of more “modern” cures. Nonetheless, a significant degree of official medicines still depend on natural materials for their modes of action albeit in an altered or synthesized form (Krochmal & Walters, 1971; Morton, 1977; Wyk & Wink, 2017).
Schools of pharmacology are also starting to teach more about herbalism due to its popularity with the public (Bone & Mills, 2013; Etkin, 2008; Heinrich et al., 2018; Heinrich & Jäger, 2015; Mowrey, 1986; Wichtl, 2004).
The fields of Naturopathy, Ayurveda, and TCM have continued to employ plant medicines extensively as part of their practices (Bensky et al., 2004; Duke & Ayensu, 1984; Foster & Chongxi, 1992; Holmes, 2007, 2007; Li, 2006, 2009; Lust, 2001; Pitchford, 2003; L. Tierra, 1992; M. Tierra, 1988, 1998). Homeopathy is another type of healing that relies largely on plant medicines as well (Fry, 2017; Wood, 2000).
An overview of perspectives can give a greater understanding of the diversity in modern and traditional herbal practices worldwide (Bellamy & Pfister, 1992; Foster, 1986, 1993; Grossinger & Levine, 2003; Grossinger & Upledger, 2001; Montgillion, 1985; Morton, 1977; Sumner, 2008; M. Tierra, 1992).
Historical use of herbalism in Appalachia depended on traditional European knowledge and introduced plants combined with the knowledge of indigenous groups such as the Catawba, Cheraw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Iroquois, Koasati, Mingo, Saponi, Shawnee, Susquehanna, Tutelo, Yuchi and their native plants.
In the mid-1800s physician Francis Porcher (1970) compiled a treatise on medicinal herbs for the confederate South with allusion to Appalachian uses. A number of other books including those by John Gunn and R.V. Pierce were popular in Appalachia for healing a well (Amjad, 2005; Lopes et al., 1997).
Also important is the contribution of African American people to Appalachian medicine and beyond which is lightly documented especially in the mountains (Amjad, 2005; Leopold, 2011; Light, 2018; Pollitt, 2016; W. H. Turner & Cabbell, 1985, 1985). The interface between African Americans and indigenous groups is of particular interest and fertile ground for research on knowledge transfer (Miles, 2015; Minges, 2004; Walton-Raji, 2007).
More widely a plethora of publications have been created related to ethnobotany/herbalism and various communities of African descent (Boyd & Shimp, 2014; Carney & Rosomoff, 2011; Covey, 2007; Fett, 2002; Fontenot, 1994; Fraser, 1998; Grime, 1976; Lee & Allen-Taylor, 2014; McQuillar, 2014; Mitchell, 2011; Morton, 1974; Payne-Jackson & Lee, 1993; Schiebinger, 2017; Voeks & Rashford, 2012; Yronwode, 2002). i hope to make a whole class about the Ethnobotany of the African Diaspora in the coming year.
Today herbalism in Appalachia often builds off of its historical foundation along with an eclectic mix of knowledge from around the world. Many traditional medicinal plants still grow in the region and a direct form of herbalism remains. Practitioners of herbalism have also recognized the affinity of Eurasian plants for the Appalachian region. Some have begun to explore analogous uses for Native American plants that are related to those from east Asia (Li, 2009; Shane, 2011).
Herbalist Susun Weed (1996a, 1996b, 2002, 2003, 2011) who lives in the mountains of New York has personally influenced many people in the area around Asheville, NC and probably other places in Appalachia as well with her “Wise Woman” herbal approach. Corinna Wood in particular has continued Susun’s tradition through her Southeast Women’s Herbal Conference. Red Moon Herbs is a company located near Asheville, NC that works in the Wise Woman tradition as well.
A large amount of accepted plant medicines from the United States have continued to be harvested in Appalachia up to modern times (Amjad, 2005; Beyer, 2018; Cavender, 2003; Church, 2013; Cozzo, 1999; Howell, 2006; Krochmal & Walters, 1971; Lopes et al., 1997; Savers & Action, 2019).
Use of herbal products in the United States persists and even continues to grow. One reason for such a phenomenon, may be that natural medicines can work more safely and effectively than synthetic pharmaceuticals, while being more economical as well (Duke, 2009). However, NOT all herbs are totally safe and without side effects! Consumer education on such a point is an important subject as the herbal industry is largely unregulated. Medicinal plant use is not something to be taken lightly. One might assume because plant medicine is “natural” that it may be less dangerous than synthetic substitutes upon which many have come to rely. This is certainly not the case (Dauncey & Larsson, 2018; Fenwick, 1989; Lannuzel et al., 2002; Potts et al., 2012; Pour et al., 2011; Pour & Sasidharan, 2011; Wagstaff, 2008).
The classic statement of toxicology is that the difference between a medicine and a poison is the dosage. One must know many variables when stepping into the realm of plant medicine. These include: proper identification of the plant, what part to use, what to treat, when to gather, how to prepare it, method of administration, dosage level, and contraindications. The journal Herbal Gram of the American Botanical Council and the American Herbal Products Association (AHPA), as well as the American Herbalists guild, are a few good sources for best practices.
Some plants written about in older sources are often no longer considered safe when applied in traditional ways i.e. Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) due to its pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Nonetheless, many plants are relatively safe to use when properly identified.
Plants i normally use include: immune boosting tonics, digestive aids, superfoods, memory enhancers, and wound healers. Plants for such functions tend to come from “safe” families that bridge the gap between food and medicine i.e. the Aster (Asteraceae), Mallow (Malvaceae) and Mint (Lamiaceae) families. Everyone should have a basic knowledge of herbalism in regards to the simple functions mentioned above.
More in depth understanding and the use of a trained professional may be in order for more acute, chronic, or specialized conditions. The fields of botany, pharmacognosy, biochemistry, and others can ultimately shed light in a professional and technical way on some modes of action for medicinal plants (Blumenthal, 2000; Bruneton & Hatton, 2008; Healthcare, 2007; Heinrich et al., 2018; Hoffmann, 2003; Malviya, 2015; Morton, 1977; Samuelsson & Bohlin, 2017)
The Greek philosopher and healer Hippocrates is said to have stated “Let food be thy medicine.” A number of modern sources have ascribed to such a philosophy (Brill & Dean, 1994; Colbin, 1986; Kowalchik & Hylton, 1998; Pieroni & Price, 2006).
Some books also contain copious recipes for employing food as medicine (Crocker, 1999; Duke, 2009; Gates & Schatz, 2006; Kushi & Jack, 1985; Muenscher & Conrad, 1978; Pieroni & Price, 2006).
The first line of defense in maintaining health is to have proper nutrition (Balch, 2006; Chrzan & Brett, 2017; Fallon, 1999; Haas & Levin, 2006; Pitchford, 2003).
Some herb books take a more comprehensive look at herbal plant use including dried arrangements, potpourri, aromatherapy, natural dyes, cultivation, etc (Kowalchik & Hylton, 1998; Lust, 2001; Shapiro & Harrisson, 2000). Such resources offer a reader the most value for their money and a greater holistic understanding of the role of herbs in right livelihood.
Modern Treatments of Herbal Medicine
Modern treatments of herbal medicine vary greatly. Some resources take a very scientific approach mentioning phytochemistry in the form of a materia medica (Blumenthal, 2000; Hoffmann, 2003; Morton, 1977; Wyk & Wink, 2017). Other sources blend together modern assays with the knowledge of traditional uses (Crellin & Philpott, 1997a; Duke & Foster, 2014). Modern Appalachian herbal authorities and/or practioners have written a number of books as well (Cavender, 2003; Howell, 2006; Krochmal & Walters, 1971; Light, 2018; Montgillion, 1985; Rago, 2000).
The publisher Springer in particular has quite a few modern publications about medicinal plants of the world (Agrawal et al., 2017; Albuquerque et al., 2018; Lim, 2012, 2013, 2014; Máthé, 2016; Neffati et al., 2017; Roth & Lindorf, 2002; Stepp, 2018; Yaniv & Dudai, 2016). Ivan Ross is another researcher with a multi-volume approach to the medicinal plants of the world (Ross, 2001, 2003, 2010).
Herbal medicine has become big business worth billions of dollars. Products such as Echinacea (Echinacea spp.), Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa), St John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum), Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), Ginseng (Panax spp.) and many others are popular almost to a fault. These plants with the exception of St John’s are native to Appalachia and in threat of disappearing in the wild all together (Gladstar & Hirsch, 2000). Though the typical St John’s Wort in use (Hypericum perforatum) is not native an analogue that may be used when abundant (Hypericum punctatum) is native. The United Plant Savers (UPS) is currently advocating for awareness and preservation of these precious plant resources. Many other plants that are native/naturalized to Appalachia or could be grown here comprise the majority of top selling and most used medicinals (Cook, 2009). Some examples are included below.
Aloe (Aloe vera)
Mugwort/SweetAnnie/Wormwood/Southernwood (Artemisia spp.)
Burdock (Arctium spp.)
Mullein (Verbascum thapsus)
Cayenne (Capsicum frutescens)
Nettles (Urtica dioica)
Dandelion (Taraxacum officianale)
Oatstraw (Avena sativa)
Elderberry (Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis)
Plantain (Plantago spp.)
Garlic (Allium sativum)
Skullcap (Scutellaria spp.)
Gingko (Ginkgo biloba)
Valerian (Valeriana officianalis)
Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.)
Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)
Mint (Mentha spp.)
Yellow Dock (Rumex spp.)
Motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca)
Many products are offered over the counter in regards to the plants already mentioned. However, it is hard to tell the quality of product and the environmental/social sustainability of its harvest and manufacture. Local sourcing of such materials is the best way to know for sure what practices were used. Frank Cook would talk about food feet or medicine feet rather than the more common food miles used in localism parlance today.
Several exotic plants that have long traditions of healing have been allowed to become invasives (J. Baldwin, 2003; Buhner, 2005; Morris, 2009; Scott, 2010). People often ignorant of their utility not only pass up using these powerful medicines but they intentionally poison them. These poisons sometimes may lead to further environmental degradation. However, pesticides certainly have a role due to the scale and tenacity of certain infestations. Some examples of “choice” invasive medicinal plants include Kudzu (Pueraria montana), Barberry (Berberis spp.), Japanese Knotweed (Reynoutria japonica) and Japanese Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica). Kudzu in particular is one plant with a lot of historical use for various purposes and quite a bit of research to back up some of those applications (Benlhabib et al., 2004; Hoots & Baldwin, 1996, 1996; Keung & Vallee, 1998; Lukas et al., 2005; Penetar et al., 2015; Shebek & Rindone, 2000; Shurtleff & Aoyagi, 1985).
Other lesser known medicinal plants may become invasive locally such as Jaiogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum) and Chocolate Vine (Akebia quinata) (Cui et al., 1999; Razmovski-Naumovski et al., 2005). Let’s make lemonade from lemons shall we?
Dandelions are often considered as exotic invasive. New research however shows that some strains are native. That said they are incredible medicinals either way with quite a bit of anti-cancer research to back that up (Chatterjee et al., 2011; P. Ovadje et al., 2011; Pamela Ovadje, 2014; Pamela Ovadje et al., 2012, 2016).
Southern Appalachia remains a hot bed of herbalism for a new generation of people who are mostly from outside the region. A concentration of herbal schools are centered around Asheville, NC (Artemisia & Beyer, n.d.; Boardwine, 2019; Eidus, 2011; Foley, 2011; Hollis, 2019; Maier, n.d.; Shane, 2011). Juliet Blankespoor of the Chestnut School of Herbal Medicine now only offers online classes primarily. Notable school locations occur in the southern and northern Appalachian extremes of Georgia, Alabama and New York (Howell, 2011; Light, 2011; Song, 2011). Newer schools include the, One Willow Apothecaries, Sassafras School of Appalachian Plantcraft, Terra Sylva School of Botanical Medicine and not far away in Deep Gap, NC the Eclectic School of Herbal Medicine. A more extensive description of these schools and others can be found under the resources section of the Botany Everyday site. Northern Appalachia has a good concentration of resources as well especially in VT including Sage Mountain and the Vermont Center for Integrative Herbalism and Deb Soule is in Maine as well.
Many organizations around Asheville also pursue research into herbalism. Some of the significant work on growing herbs as alternative crops is conducted in Fletcher, NC by Dr. Jeanine Davis and her crew (Davis, 1997, 2011; Persons & Davis, 2014) through the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. Specific research in Hops and Cannabis are recent initiatives in the pursuit of knowledge about medicinal plants.
Phytochemical research in herbal medicine was historically carried out at the Bent Creek Institute in Asheville, NC. This is the nation’s only specific repository for medicinal plant germplasm (Scullytown, 2011). Instructors at Asheville Buncombe Community College also conduct classes in herbalism. Services in phytochemical analysis of medicinal plants are also offered at the same school (Schober, 2011).
Adaptogens are a class of herbal remedies that deserve more attention. Many of these plants and fungi are from Asia. However, almost every region of the world has at least one. These entities span across a multitude of families unlike some patterns of medicinal plant uses. Adaptogens help the body maintain homeostasis. They tend to be immune boosting, cancer fighting and nourishing to the adrenals while helping the body cope with stress. Definitive texts will help to flesh out the incredible properties of this group of plants and mushrooms (C. Campbell, 2016; Grainger, 2018; Noveille, 2018; Winston & Maimes, 2007; Yance, 2013).
The most famous adaptogens of all are probably the Ginseng complex (Panax spp. and Eleutherococcus senticosus). Ginseng has fascinated people and been the source of a wildcrafting industry in Appalachia for over 200 years. This practice has been avidly pursued to the modern day (Beyfuss, 1999; Burkhart et al., 2012; Carlson, 1986; Hankins, 2009; Harding, 1972; Johannsen, 2006; Kelly, 1977; Manget, 2012; McGraw et al., 2010; Ormsby & Leopold, 2018; D. A. Taylor, 2006; Van der Voort & McGraw, 2006; Woods, 2014). Definitive guides to growing and marketing Ginseng and other medicinals may aid further study (Davis, 1997; Musick, n.d.; Persons & Davis, 2014; Vaughan et al., 2009). References for this one group of plants number in the hundreds if not thousands (Court, 2000; D. A. Taylor, 2006). They have millennia of historical use in China and probably Appalachia as well. Ginseng is becoming scarce in the wild and intentional cultivation is becoming necessary to keep up a sustainable supply.
Many adaptogens might be easily cultivated to offset the pressure being put on Ginseng. Holy Basils (Ocimum gratissimum, O. tenuiflorum) are adaptogens that are particularly easy to grow and will sometimes even self-sow after the first year. Other potential adaptogenic crops for Appalachia and other places include Ashwaganda (Withania somnifera), Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra & G. uralensis), Schisandra (Schisandra chinensis), Astragalus (Astragalus membranaceus), Codonopsis (Codonopsis pilosula), and He Shou Wu (Polygonum multiflorum) (Winston & Maimes, 2007). A couple plants might even be considered potential weedy exotic invasives including Jaiogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum) mentioned earlier and other Asian plants such as and Goji berries (Lycium chinense, L. barbarum). Several people in the Asheville NC area offer many of these plants for sale including Mountain Gardens, Eagle Feather Farm, Herb and Roots Nursery and Useful Plants Nursery (Eidus, 2011; Hollis, 2011; Marsh, 2011).
The use of American and Asian Ginseng somewhat analogously is well known. However, they do have different specific uses and strengths in many traditional systems. Several other plants that are native and naturalized in Appalachia and North America are related to Asian adaptogens and might be used similarly with further study. These include Knotweed (Polygonum spp.), Schisandra (Schisandra spp.), Astragalus (Astragalus spp.) and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota).
Appalachian Medicinal Plant Ethnographic Studies
Appalachia is blessed with a plethora of ethnographic studies of herbal use from almost every area of the region. One reason may be that many of the most popular herbal plants in the country happen to grow in Appalachia. Use of herbal medicines in a traditional way also persisted in the area long after such practices had mostly died out in more urban places. The economy of herbal use and independence that such use provided are often mentioned as motives for such a phenomenon. Herbal practitioners have been shown to be very egalitarian and were historically willing to offer their services for free if necessary. Luckily, several famous herbalists were profiled shortly before their passing away. Others continue to carry on the traditions of such elders. The area is now ripe for a more modern study of herbal plant use.
Tommie Bass was an herbalist in the Alabama portion of southern Appalachia who lived from 1908-1996. His story has been documented in more depth than most if not all such practitioners. For Bass, herbalism was a continually evolving practice. The plants that he employed were the product of a synthesis between oral tradition, information learned in books and intuition. Researchers J. Crellin and Jane Philpott (Crellin & Philpott, 1997a, 1997b) documented through Bass how plants may be adapted from local flora when particular species mentioned in the literature are not abundant. Phyllis Light studied with Tommie Bass and continues to practice herbalism at the Southern extreme of Appalachian in Arab, GA (Light, 2011). Light also put out a book recently (Light, 2018). Observations about Tommie were also made into a book by another one of his students and friends (Patton, 2004).
Anthropologist David Cozzo (1999) included monographs of 47 plants that were harvested for the medicinal trade in three counties of western North Carolina. He interviewed eight “root diggers” about their practices as well as completed a thorough literature review of several sources mentioned in the current class. Cozzo found that root digging was an economically marginal activity and that most diggers did not personally use the products that they harvested. i came across another article about root digging in a copy of Geographical Review (Price, 1960).
Researcher Judith Bolyard (1981) analyzed 90 medicinal plants in use by members of 9 counties in eastern Kentucky. She then cross compared those uses with Rabun, GA, the low country of SC, indigenous groups of the Americas, and historical and “modern” sources from the literature of pharmacopeias, formularies and herbals. Bolyard relied on taped interviews already archived and one’s that she conducted herself that are all located at Alice Lloyd College in Kentucky. This work remains as one of the best sources of cross comparison of Appalachian medicinal plant use. However, she listed three sources for Native American plant use in the references conflating the distinct tribes of the Chippewa, Delaware and Cherokee together. The only source directly cited is by Hamel and Chilotsky (1975). The comparisons to Georgia come from the Foxfire project (Wigginton, 1972). Comparison to South Carolina come from ethnobotanist Julia Morton (1974). Ultimately, Bolyard found little correlation between the different cultures in regards to particular remedies but found some fidelity of cures to the literature from the 1800s. Researchers from the Foxfire project subsequently continued to catalog medicinal plant use in Appalachia (Fund, 1986).
The story of Kern Kiser is one of the most multicultural that i have found (Kiser et al., 1975). Kern was from Wise county VA, but was a descendent of settlers from Kentucky as well as Native American healers. He went to college for botany in Raleigh, NC. He apparently learned more herbalism there from a Native American that had moved to the area from South Dakota. Most of the plants and stated uses covered are common in the Appalachian region. Alas, this reference is only 53 small pages long and mostly handwritten. Books mentioned in the suggested reading section are all popular texts and therefore might explain the uniformity of plant use advocated by Kiser (Harding, 1972; Medsger, 1972).
Physician Hassan Amjad has made several significant contributions to the literature of Appalachian herbalism. His research pertains to West Virginia in particular. He profiled Clarence Frederick Gray known as Mr. Catfish, “Man of the Woods” (Amjad, 2006). Catfish was born in 1917 and apparently learned herbalism from his grandfather. The family knowledge came largely from what Catfish’s great-great grandfather learned from the Cherokee. He was somewhat of a celebrity and had received correspondences asking for help in the tens of thousands. Amjad found that the major problems of many people included obesity, arthritis, sex life, cancer, high blood pressure, heart problems, warts, PMS and hot flashes through an analysis of many letters and conversing with Catfish. Amjad listed 56 plants as part of Catfish’s herbal apothecary. Catfish had an aversion for members of the Solanaceae family including Eggplant, Tomatoes and Potatoes. Such a belief stretches back to European views of the 16th and 17th centuries. Catfish incorporated Astrology and the Doctrine of signatures into his practice which were also a feature of older European healing modalities (Bennett, 2007; Graves, 2012). i have personally witnessed the use of the Doctrine of signatures in various other cultures as well i.e. Costa Rica and Jamaica.
An extensive study of over 60 people concerning herbal medicine around Chattanooga offers other insights into plant use in the Appalachian region (Evans et al., 1982). The majority of people in this case were females. Granny women are mentioned throughout the literature as herbalists attending to birth matters as well as other types of herbal treatment. However, many ethnographic studies have focused on male healers. Therefore this study offers potentially lesser seen insights.
Many references showed a faith that spirit had put plants in place to heal almost all illness with whites and Native American alike (Banks, 2004; Price, 1960) The role of faith healing in combination with plants has been studied extensively as well (Buhner, 2006; Cavender, 2003; Kirkland, 1992). Several other resources can only be mentioned at the present time. A small book published by Warren Wilson College covers a number of herbal remedies, herbalists from the region and herb dealers (Lopes et al., 1997). Two very in depth analysis of folk medicine in Appalachia with much in regards to herbalism have also been published (Amjad, 2005; Cavender, 2003). Dr. Amjad is one of the few people to cover the role of African Americans in the Appalachian herbal tradition. However a more comprehensive source of information on Blacks in Appalachia has been compiled as mentioned above (W. H. Turner & Cabbell, 1985).
What studies can you find from your area about medicinal plant use? From what historical traditions are these derived? What is the name of the indigenous group of where you live? Do you know what their most special plants are? Dan Moerman’s Native American Ethnobotany database may help facilitate your search.
Studies of Appalachian Indigenous Medicinal Plant Use
Several accounts from the 18th to mid 19th century testify to the ability of the North American indigenous tribes to use wild plants for medicine (Carver, 1956; Robson & Elias, 1978; Smith, 1812). James Mooney’s anthropological work in the late 1800s has long been considered one of the primary sources of information for Cherokee plant use (Mooney, 1992). His writing reflects the concurrence of ritual and ceremony with the employment of plants for healing. Mooney’s work was continued by the Belgian anthropologist Frans Olbrecht after his death (Mooney, 1932).
The indigenous North American type of healing system was later discounted by people looking for phytochemicals with pharmacological effects only. A reference that compares plant use by other southern tribes such as the Chocktaw, Natchez, Koasati, Chickasaw and Creeks with “modern” medical beliefs reflects such a shift (L. A. P. Taylor, 1978). The use of plants by these various tribes even in close proximity was shown to have little overlap. This phenomenon points to localized evolutions of plant applications.
Several studies in the mid1900s continued the exploration of Cherokee plant use. William Banks (1953) used a number of informants from the Eastern Band to write his thesis covering Cherokee plant use. He also built on the work of Mooney and Olbrecht. His research substantiated the idea that many plants were used differently by various members of the tribe. Hundreds of plants were catalogued in the process and many of them have ascribed medicinal uses.
A conflation of indigenous North American herb uses has sometimes occurred in modern times. This further masked the individuality of a particular ecological setting or even tribal level of awareness (Hutchens, 1992). Cross comparisons with the folk and scientific knowledge of plant use from disparate cultures from around the globe evolved concurrently with the loss of representational details around native use.
The Cherokee had adopted many introduced plants into their materia medica by the time of Mooney in the late 1800s (Mooney, 1992). Whether the use of these plants was learned from whites or independently is often unknown. The late recording of indigenous knowledge in regards to medicinal plants probably masks what was known and employed by them prior to colonization (Crellin & Philpott, 1997b). The uses of plants by natives have often been described by outsiders and not by members of the tribe themselves (Crow, 2001). Cherokee can be heard in their own words describing medicinal practices through listening to interviews (French & Hornbuckle, 1981).
Many researchers have added to the picture of medicinal plant use by the Southeastern indigenous tribes. David Cozzo (2004) for his dissertation synthesized the data of various Cherokee ethnographers in order to get a holistic sense of their medicinal plant use and ethnobotanical classification systems. Rebecca Westbrooks entered plants with medicinal uses known by the Cherokee into a database coming up with 472 species in total (Westbrooks, 1989). J.T Garrett (2003) has written about over 450 medicinal plants of the Cherokee and framed them within the concept of the four directions and other spiritual beliefs. Daniel Moerman has amalgamated the work of Cherokee researchers and framed it within the context of plants used by over 100 tribes from North America (Moerman, 1998). John Swanton (1979) compiled information about various southeastern tribes including information about medicinal practices.
The most important plant families in numbers of species used for medicine from examining the literature cited above are the Sunflower (Asteraceae), Mint (Lamiaceae) and Carrot (Apiaceae). Stronger and more dangerous medicines are found in the Tomato (Solanaceae), Buttercup (Ranunculaceae), Foxglove (Scrophulariaceae) and Barberry (Berberidaceae) families. Certain especially useful medicines belong to smaller families such as the family of Ginseng (Araliaceae).
A theme of food as medicine repeatedly came up throughout the literature. The use of plants for healing teas and detoxification by eating greens is commonly mentioned. Many spices are stated to act medicinally as well. However, good diet, exercise, hydration and rest all combine with herbal supplementation to keep illness at bay.
Original white settlers of Appalachia brought many of their European plants and healing traditions with them. However, they also picked up significant knowledge at times from the indigenous tribes present. Herbalism is very popular in general in the U.S. today. However, in Appalachia many people persist with the growing, harvesting and learning about herbalism in a more direct and popular way than many other areas of the country.
Further Research on Medicinal Herbs of Appalachia
A comparison of all the plants mentioned in the cited ethnographies with their stated uses would be insightful. Compilations of the common names mentioned in these references and others might help future researchers decipher primary research material. Also an analysis of the roles that African Americans have played in the development of Appalachian herbalism will add to a more complete picture.
Who are the herbalists of Appalachia in the here and now? Who did they learn from? How were those teachers taught? Phyllis Light lives on one of the last southern mountains in Arab, Alabama. She represents the melding of white, black, indigenous and other traditions that make up the cultural soup of Appalachian folk medicine. 7 Song teaches in the northern extreme of Appalachia in Ithaca, New York. He has had a profound influence on the herbal knowledge and pedagogy of the Asheville region in the heart of Appalachia. Some of his students such as Corey Pine Shane, Juliet Blankespoor and Frank Cook have gone on to inspire literally thousands of other people in the ways of herbal medicine and plant knowledge in general. Researchers such as Jeanine Davis, Sunshine Brosi, Hasan Amjad, Mimi Hernandez and Joanne McCoy, continue to publish literature for the formal botanical community about the wonderful potential of the Appalachian flora as well as our need to preserve and protect it. People working at Frostburg State University and Maryland University of Integrative Health (formerly Tai Sophia) educate the public at the collegiate level. The network that all these people maintain and continue to grow would make for a fascinating study.
The next class will cover major Woody Plants for Phytoremediation and it will be posted around 7/25
Below are items to think about/comment on. Please write me directly at firstname.lastname@example.org or leave information in the commentary at the Facebook group.
WOULD REALLY LOVE TO HEAR WHAT YOU HAVE TO SAY!!!
- Ethically wildcraft a familiar medicinal plant or get familiar enough to wildcraft a plant for some medicine making this fall
- Make a list of the medicinal plants you use most regularly in your life.
- What are the most important medicinal plants from this list for you?
- Talk with older relatives about the medicines they used traditionally and where those traditions came from
- Plan to grow a garden next year, even if in containers, that will hold medicinal plants
- Attend a workshop or a class and write up a brief description of plants or information learned.
- Post any clear photos of question plants to Facebook or send in an email.
Praises to all that have donated to the cause. i encourage everyone reading this to donate as they are able financially, commentarially, or energetically... Your contributions greatly help me continue this crucial work of ethnobotanical research and education. Please let me know your thoughts in general and any way i can help this class serve you best.
Agrawal, D. C., Tsay, H.-S., Shyur, L.-F., Wu, Y.-C., & Wang, S.-Y. (Eds.). (2017). Medicinal Plants and Fungi: Recent Advances in Research and Development. Springer.
Albuquerque, U. P., Patil, U., & Máthé, Á. (Eds.). (2018). Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of South America: Brazil (1st ed. 2018 edition). Springer.
Amjad, H. (2005). Folk Medicine of Appalachia: A Vanishing Tradition. Lulu.com.
Amjad, H. (2006). Life & Thymes of an Appalachian Herbalist. Lulu.com.
Anderson, K., & Blackburn, T. C. (1993). Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians. Malki-Ballena Press.
Anderson, M. K. (2006). Tending the Wild: Native American Knowledge and the Management of California’s Natural Resources (1st ed.). University of California Press.
Arber, A. R. (1970). Herbals, Their Origin and Evolution; a Chapter in the History of Botany, 1470-1670 (2d ed. rewritten and enl). Hafner.
Artemisia, A., & Beyer, R., A. (n.d.). The Sassafras School of Appalachian Plantcraft. The Sassafras School of Appalachian Plantcraft. Retrieved September 17, 2019, from https://www.sassafras-school.com/
Balch, P. (2006). Prescription for Nutritional Healing (4th ed.). Avery Pub. Group.
Baldwin, B. G., Goldman, D. H., Keil, D. J., Patterson, R., & Rosatti, T. J. (Eds.). (2012). The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California (2nd ed.). University of California Press.
Baldwin, J. (2003). Kudzu in America. Suntop.
Banks, W. H. (1953). Ethnobotany of the Cherokee Indians.
Banks, W. H. (2004). Plants of the Cherokee: Medicinal, Edible, and Useful Plants of the Eastern Cherokee Indians / Kemp, Steve. Great Smoky Mountains Association.
Barrett, S. A., & Gifford, E. W. (2011). Miwok Material Culture: Indian Life Of The Yosemite Region. Literary Licensing, LLC.
Bean, L. J. (1974). Mukat’s People: The Cahuilla Indians of Southern California. University of California Press.
Bean, L. J., & Saubel, K. S. (1972). Temalpakh: Cahuilla Indian Knowledge and Usage of Plants (5th Reprint). Malki Museum, Rubidoux Printing Company.
Beck, B., & Strike, S. (1994). Ethnobotany of the California Indians. Vol 1, A Bibliography & Index; Vol 2, Aboriginal Uses of California’s Indigenous Plants. Koeltz Scientific Books.
Bellamy, D. J., & Pfister, A. (1992). World Medicine: Plants, Patients and People. Blackwell Pub.
Benlhabib, E., Baker, J. I., Keyler, D. E., & Singh, A. K. (2004). Kudzu Root Extract Suppresses Voluntary Alcohol Intake and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms in P Rats Receiving Free Access to Water and Alcohol. Journal of Medicinal Food, 7(2), 168–179. https://doi.org/10.1089/1096620041224210
Bennett, B. C. (2007). Doctrine of Signatures: An Explanation of Medicinal Plant Discovery or Dissemination of Knowledge? The New York Botanical Garden Press Economic Botany, 61(3), 246–255.
Bensky, D., Clavey, S., Stoger, E., & Gamble, A. (2004). Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica (3rd ed.). Eastland Press.
Beyer, R., A. (2018). A Place for Plants: Ethnobotany, Bioregionalism, and Folkways in Appalachia [Master’s Thesis]. Appalachian State University.
Beyfuss, R. L. (1999). Economics and Marketing of Ginseng. Agroforestry Notes (USDA-NAC). http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/agroforestnotes/14
Blumenthal, M. (2000). Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs (1st ed.). Integrative Medicine Communications.
Boardwine, T. (2019). Green Comfort School of Herbal Medicine. Green Comfort School of Herbal Medicine. https://greencomfortherbschool.com/
Bolyard, J. L. (1981). Medicinal Plants and Home Remedies of Appalachia. Thomas.
Bone, K., & Mills, S. (2013). Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy: Modern Herbal Medicine (2nd ed.). Churchill Livingstone.
Boyd, E. L., & Shimp, L. A. (2014). African American Home Remedies: A Practical Guide. Univ of Louisiana at Lafayette.
Bruneton, J., & Hatton, C. K. (2008). Pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, medicinal plants. Tec et doc ; Intercept.
Buhner, S. H. (2005). Healing Lyme: Natural Prevention and Treatment of Lyme Borreliosis and Its Coinfections. Raven Press.
Burkhart, E. P., Jacobson, M. G., & Finley, J. (2012). A case study of stakeholder perspective and experience with wild American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) conservation efforts in Pennsylvania, U.S.A.: Limitations to a CITES driven, top-down regulatory approach. Biodiversity and Conservation, 21(14), 3657–3679. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-012-0389-9
Campbell, C. (2016). Herbal Remedies: Adaptogens: Herbs For - Adrenals, Thyroid, Hormone Balance & Much More! CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
Campbell, P. (2000). Survival Skills of Native California. Gibbs Smith.
Carlson, A. (1986). Ginseng: America’s Botanical Drug Connection to the Orient. Economic Botany, 40(2), 233–249. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02859148
Carney, J., & Rosomoff, R. N. (2011). In the Shadow of Slavery: Africa’s Botanical Legacy in the Atlantic World. University of California Press.
Carter, M. A. C., Donna J. Stevens Jack L. (2009). Common Southwestern Native Plants: An Identification Guide Revised and Expanded. Mimbres Publishing.
Carver, J. (1956). Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America, in the Years 1766, 1767, and 1768 (3d ed). Ross & Haines.
Castetter, E. F. (1935). Uncultivated native plants used as sources of food. University of New Mexico.
Cavender, A. (2003). Folk Medicine in Southern Appalachia. University of North Carolina Press.
Chapter, R. (2007). Wildflowers of Nevada and Placer Counties, California. California Native Plant Society.
Chatterjee, S. J., Ovadje, P., Mousa, M., Hamm, C., & Pandey, S. (2011). The Efficacy of Dandelion Root Extract in Inducing Apoptosis in Drug-Resistant Human Melanoma Cells. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011, e129045. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/129045
Chestnut, V. K. (1974). Plants Used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California (Reprint). Mendocino County Historical Society.
Chrzan, J., & Brett, J. (Eds.). (2017). Food Health: Nutrition, Technology, and Public Health. Berghahn Books.
Church, B. (2013). Medicinal Plants, Trees & Shrubs of Appalachia (2nd ed.). Tate Publishing.
Cook, F. (2009). Emerging Planetary Medicines. Self-published Master’s Thesis.
Court, W. E. (Ed.). (2000). Ginseng, the Genus Panax. CRC Press.
Covey, H. C. (2007). African American slave medicine: Herbal and non-herbal treatments. Lexington Books.
Cozzo, D. N. (1999). Herb Gatherers and Root Diggers of Northwestern North Carolina: A Thesis. wncln.wncln.org Library Catalog.
Cozzo, D. N. (2004). Ethnobotanical Classification System and Medical Ethnobotany of the Eastern Band of the Cherokee Indians. University of Georgia.
Crellin, J. K., & Philpott, J. (1997a). A Reference Guide to Medicinal Plants: Herbal Medicine Past and Present. Duke University Press.
Crellin, J. K., & Philpott, J. (1997b). Trying to Give Ease: Tommie Bass and the Story of Herbal Medicine. Duke University Press.
Crocker, P. (1999). The Healing Herbs Cookbook. Robert Rose.
Crow, T. M. (2001). Native Plants, Native Healing: Traditional Muskogee Way. Native Voices Book Pub.
Cui, J.-F., Eneroth, P., & Bruhn, J. G. (1999). Gynostemma pentaphyllum: Identification of major sapogenins and differentiation from Panax species. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 8(3), 187–191. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0928-0987(99)00013-5
Curtin, L. M. S. (2003). Healing Herbs of the Upper Rio Grand: Traditional Medicine of the Southwest (M. Moore, Ed.; Rev Sub). Western Edge Press.
Dauncey, E. A., & Larsson, S. (2018). Plants That Kill: A Natural History of the World’s Most Poisonous Plants. Princeton University Press.
Davis, J. M. (1997). Ginseng: A production guide for North Carolina (Rev). N.C. Cooperative Extension Service.
Davis, J. M. (2011, August 8). Jeanine M. Davis, PhD. http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/fletcher/programs/herbs/staff/jmdavis/index.html
De Laszlo, H. G. (1958). Library of Medicinal Plants Collected. Hefferfer and Sons.
Dean, S., Ratcheson, P. S., Finger, J. W., Daus, E. F., & Bates, C. D. (2005). Weaving A Legacy - Paper: Indian Baskets and the People of Owens Valley, California. University of Utah Press.
Deur, D., & Turner, N. (2006). Keeping It Living: Traditions of Plant Use and Cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North America. University of Washington Press.
Dubin, M. D., & Tolley, S.-L. (2008). Seaweed, Salmon, and Manzanita Cider: A California Indian Feast. Heyday Books.
Duke, J. A. (2009). The Green Pharmacy Guide to Healing Foods: Proven Natural Remedies to Treat and Prevent More Than 80 Common Health Concerns. Rodale.
Duke, J. A., & Ayensu, E. S. (1984). Medicinal Plants of China. Reference Pubns.
Duke, J. A., & Foster, S. (2014). Peterson Field Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs of Eastern and Central North America (3rd Ed). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Eidus, R. (2011). North Carolina Ginseng & Goldenseal Co. - Eagle Feather Organic Farm. http://www.ncgoldenseal.com/eaglefeather/index.html
Etkin, N. L. (2008). Edible Medicines: An Ethnopharmacology of Food (1 edition). University of Arizona Press.
Evans, E. R., Kileff, C., & Shelley, K. (1982). That Was All We Ever Knew: Herbal Medicine, a Living Force in the Appalachians.
Fallon, S. (1999). Nourishing Traditions: The Cookbook that Challenges Politically Correct Nutrition and the Diet Dictocrats (Revised and Updated 2nd). NewTrends Publishing.
Fenwick, G. R. (1989). Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum)—Toxic effects and toxic constituents. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 46(2), 147–173. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740460204
Fett, S. M. (2002). Working Cures: Healing, Health, and Power on Southern Slave Plantations. The University of North Carolina Press.
Flannery, M. A., Museum, L. L. A., & Worthen, D. B. (2001). America’s Botanico-Medical Movements: Vox Populi (1st ed.). Informa Healthcare.
Foley, C. (2011). Appalachia School of Holistic Herbalism. http://www.herbsheal.com/
Fontenot, W. L. (1994). Secret doctors: Ethnomedicine of African Americans. Bergin & Garvey.
Foster, S. (1986). East-West botanicals: Comparisons of medicinal plants disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America (1st ed.). Ozark Beneficial Plant Project.
Foster, S. (1993). Herbal Renaissance, Growing, Using & Understanding Herbs in the Modern World. Gibbs Smith.
Foster, S., & Chongxi, Y. (1992). Herbal Emissaries. Healing Arts Press.
Foster, S., & Hobbs, C. (2002). A Field Guide to Western Medicinal Plants and Herbs. Houghton Mifflin Co.
Frank, L. E. (1991). Foods of the Southwest Indian nations: Traditional & contemporary Native American recipes. Ten Speed Press.
Fraser, G. J. (1998). African American Midwifery in the South: Dialogues of Birth, Race, and Memory. Harvard University Press.
French, L., & Hornbuckle, J. (1981). The Cherokee Perspective Written by Eastern Cherokees. Appalachian Consortium Press.
Fry, K. K. (2017). What’s The Remedy For That?: The Definitive Homeopathy Guide to Mastering Everyday Self-Care Without Drugs. Collett Avenue Press, L.L.C.
Fund, Inc. F. (1986). Foxfire 9 (E. Wigginton, Ed.). Anchor.
Funk, A., & Kaufman, K. (2011). Living Wild: Gardening, Cooking and Healing with Native Plants of the Sierra Nevada. Flicker Press.
Garcia, C., & Adams, J. D. (2012). Healing with medicinal plants of the west—Cultural and scientific basis for their use. (3rd ed). Abedus Press.
Garrett, J. T. (2003). The Cherokee Herbal: Native Plant Medicine from the Four Directions. Bear & Company.
Gates, D., & Schatz, L. (2006). The Body Ecology Diet: Recovering Your Health and Rebuilding Your Immunity (9th ed.). Body Ecology.
Gladstar, R., & Hirsch, P. (2000). Planting the Future: Saving Our Medicinal Herbs. Healing Arts Press.
Grainger, P. (2018). Adaptogens: Harness the power of superherbs to reduce stress & restore calm. Gaia.
Graves, J. (2012). The Language of Plants: A Guide to the Doctrine of Signatures. Lindisfarne Books.
Grieve, M. (1971). A Modern Herbal; The Medicinal, Culinary, Cosmetic and Economic Properties, Cultivation and Folk-Lore of Herbs, Grasses, Fungi, Shrubs, & Trees with All Their Modern Scientific Uses. Dover Publications.
Grime, W. E. (1976). Ethno-Botany of the Black Americans. Reference Publications.
Grossinger, R., & Levine, P. A. (2003). Planet Medicine: Modalities (Rev Ed). North Atlantic Books.
Grossinger, R., & Upledger, J. E. (2001). Planet Medicine: Origins (Rev Ed). North Atlantic Books.
Haas, E. M., & Levin, B. (2006). Staying Healthy with Nutrition: The Complete Guide to Diet and Nutritional Medicine (21st ed.). Celestial Arts.
Haller, Jr., J. S. (2001). The People’s Doctor: Samuel Thomson and the American Botanical Movement 1790-1860 (1st ed.). Southern Illinois University Press.
Hamel, P. B. (1975). Cherokee Plants and Their Uses: A 400 Year History. Paul B. Hamel and Mary U. Chiltoskey?].
Hankins, A. G. (2009). New Regulation of Wild American Ginseng Harvest and Sale. Virginia Cooperative Extension. https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/55158
Harding, A. R. (1972). Ginseng and Other Medicinal Plants: A Book of Valuable Information for Growers as well as Collectors . (Rev.). A. R. Harding.
Hartwell, J. L. (1984). Plants Used Against Cancer: A Survey. Quarterman Publications Inc.
Healthcare, T. (2007). PDR for Herbal Medicines (Fourth Edition). Thomson Reuters.
Heinrich, M., Barnes, J., Prieto-Garcia, J., Gibbons, S., & Williamson, E. M. (2018). Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy (3rd ed.). Elsevier.
Heinrich, M., & Jäger, A. K. (Eds.). (2015). Ethnopharmacology. Wiley-Blackwell.
Heizer, R. F., & Elasser, A. B. (1980). The Natural World of the California Indians. University of California Press.
Henkel, A. (2009). American Medicinal Leaves And Herbs. Kessinger Publishing, LLC.
Hickman, J. C. (1993). The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press.
Hobbs, C., & Keville, K. (2007). Women’s Herbs: Women’s Health (2nd ed.). Botanica Press.
Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Healing Arts Press.
Hollis, J. (2011, April). Mountain Gardens / Home. http://www.mountaingardensherbs.com/
Hollis, J. (2019). Mountain Gardens. Mountain Gardens. https://www.mountaingardensherbs.com
Holmes, P. (2007). The Energetics of Western Herbs: A Materia Medica Integrating Western and Chinese Herbal Therapeutics (4th Rev Enl ed, Vol. 1). Snow Lotus Press.
Hoots, D., & Baldwin, J. (1996). Kudzu, the Vine to Love or Hate. Suntop Press.
Howell, P. K. (2006). Medicinal Plants of the Southern Appalachians. Botanologos Books.
Howell, P. K. (2011). Home Page. http://www.wildhealingherbs.com/
Hutchens, A. R. (1992). A Handbook of Native American Herbs. Shambhala.
Jacknis, I. (Ed.). (2006). Food in California Indian Culture. University of Washington Press.
Johannsen, K. (2006). Ginseng Dreams: The Secret World of America’s Most Valuable Plant. University Press of Kentucky.
Joseph, L., Turner, N. J., Lantz, T. C., University of Victoria (B.C.), School of Environmental Studies, & University of Victoria (B.C.). (2012). Finding our roots ethnoecological restoration of lhasem (Fritillaria camschatcensis (L.) Ker-Gawl), an iconic plant food in the Squamish River Estuary, British Columbia. [University of Victoria]. http://hdl.handle.net/1828/4190
Kelly, J. (1977). Herb collector’s manual and marketing guide: Ginseng growers and collectors handbook : a valuable guide for growers of ginseng and Golden Seal, medicinal ... herbe recipes and outdoor money-making ideas (5th ed.). Wildcrafters.
Keung, W. M., & Vallee, B. L. (1998). Kudzu root: An ancient chinese source of modern antidipsotropic agents. Phytochemistry, 47(4), 499–506. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00723-1
Keville, K. (1995). Herbs for Chronic Fatigue (1st ed.). Keats Publishing Inc.
Keville, K. (1996). Ginseng. Keats Pub.
Keville, K. (1999). Herbs: An Illustrated Encyclopedia. Friedman/Fairfax Publishing.
Keville, K. (2009). The Little Book of Aromatherapy (2nd Revised edition). Crossing Press.
Keville, K., & Green, M. (2008). Aromatherapy: A Complete Guide to the Healing Art (2nd ed.). Crossing Press.
Kirk, D. R. (1975). Wild Edible Plants of Western North America. Naturegraph Pub.
Kiser, K., Bledsoe, T., Askins, D., & Malone, A. (1975). Nature’s Gifts: A Guide to Local Herbs. s.n.
Kozloff, E. N. (2005). Plants of Western Oregon, Washington & British Columbia. Timber Press.
Krochmal, A., & Walters, R. S. (1971). A Guide to Medicinal Plants of Appalachia. U.S. Forest Service.
Kushi, A., & Jack, A. (1985). Complete Guide to Macrobiotic Cooking. Warner Books.
Lannuzel, A., Michel, P. P., Caparros-Lefebvre, D., Abaul, J., Hocquemiller, R., & Ruberg, M. (2002). Toxicity of Annonaceae for dopaminergic neurons: Potential role in atypical parkinsonism in Guadeloupe. Movement Disorders, 17(1), 84–90. https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.1246
Lee, M. E., & Allen-Taylor, J. D. (2014). Working the roots: Over 400 years of traditional African American healing.
Leopold, S. R. (2011). Dormant Ethnobotany: A Case Study of Decline in Regional Plant Knowledge in the Bull Run Mountains of Virginia [Antioch University]. https://etd.ohiolink.edu/pg_10?0::NO:10:P10_ACCESSION_NUM:antioch1301582669
Li, T. S. C. (2006). Taiwanese Native Medicinal Plants: Phytopharmacology and Therapeutic Values. CRC Press.
Li, T. S. C. (2009). Chinese & Related North American Herbs: Phytopharmacology & Therapeutic Values, Second Edition (2nd ed.). CRC Press.
Light, P. (2011). Phyllis D. Light—Home. http://phyllisdlight.com/
Light, P. (2018). Southern Folk Medicine: Healing Traditions from the Appalachian Fields and Forests. North Atlantic Books.
Lightfoot, K., & Parrish, O. (2009). California Indians and Their Environment: An Introduction (1st ed.). University of California Press.
Lim, T. K. (2012). Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants:Fruits (Vol. 1). Springer.
Lim, T. K. (2013). Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants: Flowers (Vol. 7). Springer.
Lim, T. K. (2014). Edible Medicinal and Non Medicinal Plants: Modified Stems, Roots, Bulbs (Vol. 9). Springer.
Lloyd, C. G. J. U. ; (1930). Bulletin of the Lloyd Library of Botany, Pharmacy and Materia Medica: Drugs and Medicines of North America. Robert Clarke & Co.
Lloyd, J. U. (1911). History of the Vegetable Drugs of the Pharmacopeia of the United States. LLoyd Library.
Lopes, D., Moser, J., & Perkinson, A. L. (1997). Appalachian Folk Medicine: Native Plants and Healing Traditions. Warren Wilson College Press.
Lukas, S. E., Penetar, D., Berko, J., Vicens, L., Palmer, C., Mallya, G., Macklin, E. A., & Lee, D. Y.-W. (2005). An Extract of the Chinese Herbal Root Kudzu Reduces Alcohol Drinking by Heavy Drinkers in a Naturalistic Setting. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 29(5), 756–762. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ALC.0000163499.64347.92
Lust, J. B. (2001). The Herb Book: The Complete and Authoritative Guide to More Than 500 Herbs. Benefical Books.
Maier, K. (n.d.). Sacred Plant Traditions Home. Sacred Plant Traditions. Retrieved September 17, 2019, from https://sacredplanttraditions.com/
Malviya, S. M. / S. R. / N. (2015). Textbook of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry (1st edition). CBS.
Manget, L. (2012). Sangin’ in the Mountains: The Ginseng Economy of the Southern Appalachians, 1865-1900. Appalachian Journal, 40(1/2), 28–56.
Margolin, M. (2001). The Way We Lived: California Indian Stories, Songs & Reminiscences (2nd ed.). Heyday Books.
Marsh, C. (2011). Useful Plants Nursery. http://www.usefulplants.org/
Máthé, Á. (Ed.). (2016). Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the World: Scientific, Production, Commercial and Utilization Aspects. Springer.
McGraw, J. B., Souther, S., & Lubbers, A. E. (2010). Rates of Harvest and Compliance with Regulations in Natural Populations of American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.). Natural Areas Journal, 30(2), 202–210. https://doi.org/10.3375/043.030.0207
McQuillar, T. L. (2014). Rootwork: Using the folk magick of black america for love, money and success. Touchstone. http://rbdigital.oneclickdigital.com
Medsger, O. P. (1972). Edible Wild Plants (Sixth Printing). Collier Books.
Miles, T. (2015). Ties That Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom (2nd ed.). University of California Press.
Minges, P. (Ed.). (2004). Black Indian Slave Narratives. Blair.
Minnis, P. E. (2010). People and Plants in Ancient Western North America. University of Arizona Press.
Mitchell, F. (2011). Hoodoo Medicine: Gullah Herbal Remedies (Rev). Summerhouse Press.
Montgillion, D. (1985). Modern Uses of Traditional Herbs. Smoke Camp Crafts.
Mooney, J. (1932). The Swimmer Manuscript: Cherokee Sacred Formulas and Medicinal Prescriptions. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 99 (F. M. Olbrechts, Ed.). Government Printing Office.
Mooney, J. (1992). James Mooney’s History, Myths, and Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees: Containing the Full Texts of Myths of the Cherokee (1900) and The Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees (1891) as Published by the Bureau of American Ethnology: With a New Biographical Introduction, James Mooney and The Eastern Cherokees. Historical Images.
Moore, M. (1989). Medicinal Plants of the Desert and Canyon West: A Guide to Identifying, Preparing, and Using Traditional Medicinal Plants Found in the Deserts and Canyons of the West and Southwest. Museum of New Mexico Press.
Moore, M. (1990). Los Remedios: Traditional Herbal Remedies of the Southwest. Museum of New Mexico Press.
Moore, M. (1993). Medicinal Plants of the Pacific West (1st ed.). Red Crane Books.
Moore, M. (2003). Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West (Rev Exp). Museum of New Mexico Press.
Morris, J. (2009). From Ravage to Resource: Adding Value in the Control of Invasive Plants. BookSurge Publishing.
Morton, J. F. (1974). Folk Remedies of the Low Country (1st ed.). Bangor-Brewer YWCA.
Morton, J. F. (1977). Major Medicinal Plants: Botany, Culture, and Uses. Thomas.
Mowrey, D. (1986). Scientific Validation of Herbal Medicine (1 edition). McGraw-Hill.
Muenscher, M. A., & Conrad, W. (1978). Garden Spice and Wild Pot-Herbs: An American Herbal. Comstock Publishing Associates.
Musick, F. (n.d.). How To Grow Ginseng: Make Money By Growing Ginseng.
Neffati, M., Najjaa, H., & Máthé, Á. (Eds.). (2017). Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the World—Africa (Vol. 3). Springer.
Noveille, A. (2018). The Complete Guide to Adaptogens: From Ashwagandha to Rhodiola, Medicinal Herbs That Transform and Heal. Adams Media.
Ody, P. (1993). The Complete Medicinal Herbal (First American). DK Publishing Inc.
Ormsby, A., & Leopold, S. (Eds.). (2018). The Future of Ginseng & Forest Botanicals: Symposium Proceedings. United Plant Savers.
Orr, S. (2014). The New American Herbal. Clarkson Potter.
Ortiz, B. R., & Parker, J. F. (1996). It Will Live Forever: Traditional Yosemite Indian Acorn Preparation (2 Revised). Heyday Books.
Ovadje, P., Chatterjee, S., Griffin, C., Tran, C., Hamm, C., & Pandey, S. (2011). Selective induction of apoptosis through activation of caspase-8 in human leukemia cells (Jurkat) by dandelion root extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 133(1), 86–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.09.005
Ovadje, Pamela. (2014). Anticancer Activity of Natural Health Products (Dandelion Root & Long Pepper Extracts); Extensive Study Of Efficacy And Mechanism Of Action [University of Windsor]. http://scholar.uwindsor.ca/etd/5209
Ovadje, Pamela, Ammar, S., Guerrero, J.-A., Arnason, J. T., & Pandey, S. (2016). Dandelion root extract affects colorectal cancer proliferation and survival through the activation of multiple death signalling pathways. Oncotarget, 7(45), 73080–73100. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.11485
Ovadje, Pamela, Hamm, C., & Pandey, S. (2012). Efficient Induction of Extrinsic Cell Death by Dandelion Root Extract in Human Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML) Cells. PLOS ONE, 7(2), e30604. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030604
Patton, D. (2004). Mountain Medicine: The Herbal Remedies of Tommie Bass (1st ed.). Natural Reader Press, LLC.
Payne-Jackson, A., & Lee, J. (1993). Folk Wisdom and Mother Wit: John Lee--An African American Herbal Healer. Greenwood Press.
Penetar, D. M., Toto, L. H., Lee, D. Y.-W., & Lukas, S. E. (2015). A single dose of kudzu extract reduces alcohol consumption in a binge drinking paradigm. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 153, 194–200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.05.025
Persons, W. S., & Davis, J. M. (2014). Growing and Marketing Ginseng, Goldenseal and other Woodland Medicinals (Rev ed). New Society Publishers.
Petrides, G. A. (1998). A Field Guide to Western Trees (Second Edition). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Pieroni, A., & Price, L. L. (Eds.). (2006). Eating and Healing: Traditional Food as Medicine. Food Products Press.
Pitchford, P. (2003). Healing with Whole Foods: Asian Traditions and Modern Nutrition (3 Rev Upd). North Atlantic Books.
Pollitt, P. A. (2016). African American and Cherokee Nurses in Appalachia: A History, 1900-1965. McFarland & Company.
Porcher, F. P. (1970). Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests. Arno.
Potts, L. F., Luzzio, F. A., Smith, S. C., Hetman, M., Champy, P., & Litvan, I. (2012). Annonacin in Asimina triloba fruit: Implication for neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicology, 33(1), 53–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2011.10.009
Pour, B. M., Latha, L. Y., & Sasidharan, S. (2011). Cytotoxicity and Oral Acute Toxicity Studies of Lantana camara Leaf Extract. Molecules, 16(5), 3663–3674. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16053663
Pour, B. M., & Sasidharan, S. (2011). In vivo toxicity study of Lantana camara. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 1(3), 230–232. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60033-6
Price, E. T. (1960). Root Digging in the Appalachians: The Geography of Botanical Drugs. Geographical Review, 50(1), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.2307/212332
Rago, L. O. (2000). Blackberry Cove Herbal: Healing with Common Herbs in the Appalachian Wise-Woman Tradition. Capital Books.
Razmovski-Naumovski, V., Huang, T. H.-W., Tran, V. H., Li, G. Q., Duke, C. C., & Roufogalis, B. D. (2005). Chemistry and Pharmacology of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Phytochemistry Reviews, 4(2–3), 197–219. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-005-3754-4
Robson, J. R. K., & Elias, J. N. (1978). The Nutritional Value of Indigenous Wild Plants: An Annotated Bibliography. Whitston Pub. Co.
Ross, I. A. (2001). Medicinal Plants of the World: Chemical Constituents, Traditional and Modern Medicinal Uses, Volume 2 (Vol. 2). Humana Press.
Ross, I. A. (2003). Medicinal Plants of the World: Chemical Constituents, Traditional and Modern Medicinal Uses (2nd ed., Vol. 1). Humana Press.
Ross, I. A. (2010). Medicinal Plants of the World: Chemical Constituents, Traditional and Modern Medicinal Uses (Vol. 3). Humana Press.
Roth, I., & Lindorf, H. (2002). South American Medicinal Plants: Botany, Remedial Properties and General Use. Springer.
Samuelsson, G., & Bohlin, L. (2017). Drugs of Natural Origin: A Treatise of Pharmacognosy (7th ed.). Swedish Pharmaceutical Press.
Savers, U. P., & Action, R. (2019). The Forest Farmers Handbook. Independently published.
Schiebinger, L. (2017). Secret Cures of Slaves: People, Plants, and Medicine in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World (1 edition). Stanford University Press.
Schober, S. (2011). Natural Products Lab | A-B Tech Small Business Center Incubator. http://abtech.edu/sbc/naturalproductslab.asp
Scott, T., L. (2010). Invasive Plant Medicine: The Ecological Benefits and Healing Abilities of Invasives. Healing Arts Press.
Scullytown. (2011). Bent Creek Institute. http://www.bentcreekinstitute.org/
Shane, C. P. (2011). Blue Ridge School of Herbal Medicine. http://www.blueridgeschool.org/
Shebek, J., & Rindone, J. P. (2000). A Pilot Study Exploring The Effect of Kudzu Root on the Drinking Habits of Patients with Chronic Alcoholism. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 6(1), 45–48. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2000.6.45
Shurtleff, W., & Aoyagi, A. (1985). The Book of Kudzu: A Culinary & Healing Guide. Avery Pub. Group.
Smith, P. (1812). The Indian doctor ’s dispensatory; being Father Smith ’s advice. Browne and Looker.
Song, 7. (2011). Northeast School of Botanical Medicine Homepage—Northeast Herbal School of Botanical Medicine. http://www.7song.com/
Stepp, J. R. (2018). Ethnoecology and Medicinal Plants of the Highland Maya (1st ed. 2018 edition). Springer.
Sumner, J. (2008). The Natural History of Medicinal Plants. Timber Press.
Swanton, J. R. (1979). The Indians of the Southeastern United States. Smithsonian.
Taylor, D. A. (2006). Ginseng, the Divine Root: The Curious History of the Plant That Captivated the World. Algonquin Books.
Taylor, L. A. P. (1978). Plants Used as Curatives by Certain Southeastern Tribes (1st AMS ed). AMS Press.
Thompson, S. (1976). Wild food plants of the Sierra (Rev). Wilderness Press.
Thomson, S. (1841). The Thomsonian Materia Medica, or Botanic Family Physician: Comprising a Philosophical Theory, The Natural Organization and Assumed Principles of Animal and Vegetable Life: To Which are added the Description of Plants and their Various Compounds (12th ed.). J. Munsell.
Tierra, L. (1992). The Herbs of Life: Health & Healing Using Western & Chinese Techniques. Crossing Press.
Tierra, M. (1988). Planetary Herbology (1st ed.). Lotus Press.
Tierra, M. (1992). American Herbalism: Essays on Herbs & Herbalism by Members of the American Herbalist Guild. Crossing Pr.
Tierra, M. (1998). The Way of Chinese Herbs. Pocket Books.
Tilford, G. L. (1997). Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West (1st ed.). Mountain Press.
Timbrook, J. (2007). Chumash Ethnobotany: Plant Knowledge Among the Chumash People of Southern California (3rd printing edition). Heyday.
Turner, J. S. (1970). The Chemical Feast: The Ralph Nader Study Group Report on Food Protection and the Food and Drug Administration (2nd Ed). Viking Press.
Turner, N. (1996). Plant Technology of First Peoples in British Columbia. Royal BC Museum.
Turner, N., & Hebda, R. J. (2012). Saanich Ethnobotany: Culturally Important Plants of the WSÁNEC People. Royal BC Museum.
Turner, Nancy J., & Kuhnlein, H. (1991). Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Nutrition, Botany and Use. Routledge.
Turner, Nancy J. (1983). Ethnobotany of the Nitinaht Indians of Vancouver Island. Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Provincial Secretary and Govt. Services, Provincial Secretary : Govt. of Canada, Parks Canada, Western Region.
Turner, Nancy J. (2010a). Food Plants of Coastal First Peoples. Royal British Columbia Museum.
Turner, Nancy J. (2010b). Food Plants of Interior First Peoples. Royal British Columbia Museum.
Turner, Nancy J. (2010c). Plant Technology of First Peoples in British Columbia. Royal British Columbia Museum.
Turner, Nancy J. (2014). Ancient pathways, ancestral knowledge: Ethnobotany and ecological wisdom of Indigenous peoples of northwestern North America. http://www.deslibris.ca/ID/447334
Turner, Nancy J, & Aderkas, P. von. (2009). The North American guide to common poisonous plants and mushrooms. Timber Press.
Turner, Nancy J, Davidson, F. E., & Enrico, J. (2004). Plants of Haida Gwaii = X̲aadaa gwaay guud gina k̲ʻaws (Skidegate) = X̲aadaa gwaayee guu ginn k̲ʻaws (Massett). Sono Nis Press.
Turner, Nancy J, Efrat, B. S., & British Columbia Provincial Museum. (1982). Ethnobotany of the Hesquiat Indians of Vancouver Island. British Columbia Provincial Museum.
Turner, Nancy J., Lepofsky, D., & Deur, D. (2013). Plant Management Systems of British Columbia’s First Peoples. BC Studies: The British Columbian Quarterly, 0(179), 107–133.
Turner, Nancy J., Łuczaj, Ł. J., Migliorini, P., Pieroni, A., Dreon, A. L., Sacchetti, L. E., & Paoletti, M. G. (2011). Edible and Tended Wild Plants, Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Agroecology. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 30(1–2), 198–225. https://doi.org/10.1080/07352689.2011.554492
Turner, Nancy Jean. (1973). Plant taxonomic systems and ethnobotany of three contemporary Indian groups of the Pacific Northwest (Haida, Bella Coola, and Lillooet) [University of British Columbia]. https://circle.ubc.ca/handle/2429/42513
Turner, W. H., & Cabbell, E. J. (1985). Blacks in Appalachia. University Press of Kentucky.
Van der Voort, M. E., & McGraw, J. B. (2006). Effects of harvester behavior on population growth rate affects sustainability of ginseng trade. Biological Conservation, 130(4), 505–516. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2006.01.010
Vaughan, R. C., Chamberlain, J. L. (James L., & Munsell, J. F. (2009). Growing American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in Forestlands. https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/47477
Vizgirdas, R. S., & Rey-Vizgirdas, E. M. (2005). Wild Plants Of The Sierra Nevada. University of Nevada Press.
Voeks, R., & Rashford, J. (2012). African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Springer.
Wagstaff, D. J. (2008). International Poisonous Plants Checklist: An Evidence-Based Reference. CRC Press.
Walton-Raji, A. Y. (2007). Black Indian Genealogy Research: African-American Ancestors Among the Five Civilized Tribes, An Expanded Edition. Heritage Books.
Weed, S. S. (1996a). Breast Cancer? Breast Health! The Wise Woman Way (1st ed.). Ash Tree Publishing.
Weed, S. S. (1996b). Wise Woman Herbal for the Childbearing Year (Wise Woman Herbal Series, Book 1). Ash Tree.
Weed, S. S. (2002). New Menopausal Years: The Wise Woman Way, Alternative Approaches for Women 30-90 (Revised). Ash Tree Publishing.
Weed, S. S. (2003). Healing Wise. Ash Tree Publishing.
Weed, S. S. (2011). Down There: Sexual and Reproductive Health the Wise Woman Way (1st ed.). Ash Tree Publishing.
Welch, J. R. (2013). Sprouting Valley: Historical Ethnobotany of the Northern Pomo from Potter Valley, California. Society of Ethnobiology.
Wetherwax, M. (2002). The Jepson Desert Manual: Vascular Plants of Southeastern California (B. G. Baldwin, S. Boyd, B. Ertter, R. Patterson, T. J. Rosatti, & D. H. Wilken, Eds.). University of California Press.
Wheelwright, E. G. (1974). Medicinal Plants and Their History. Dover Publications.
Wichtl, M. (Ed.). (2004). Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals (3rd ed.). Medpharm.
Wigginton, E. (Ed.). (1972). The Foxfire Book: Hog Dressing; Log Cabin Building; Mountain Crafts and Foods; Planting by the Signs; Snake Lore, Hunting Tales, Faith Healing; Moonshining; and Other Affairs of Plain Living (Anchor books ed). Anchor Press.
Winston, D., & Maimes, S. (2007). Adaptogens: Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief. Healing Arts Press.
Wood, M. (1997). The book of herbal wisdom: Using plants as medicine. North Atlantic Books : Distributed to the trade by Publishers Group West.
Wood, M. (2000). Vitalism: The History of Herbalism, Homeopathy, and Flower Essences (2nd.). North Atlantic Books.
Woods, M. (2014). Sustainable Ginseng. Wild Ozark.
Wyk, B.-E. van, & Wink, M. (2017). Medicinal Plants of the World (Revised edition). CABI.
Yance, D. R. (2013). Adaptogens in medical herbalism: Elite herbs and natural compounds for mastering stress, aging, and chronic disease. Healing Arts Press.
Yaniv, Z., & Dudai, N. (Eds.). (2016). Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the Middle-East. Springer.
Yronwode, C. (2002). Hoodoo Herb and Root Magic: A Materia Magica of African-American Conjure (4th ed). Lucky Mojo Curio Company.